Phonemic Inventory and Transcription. The symbols in Table 1 stand for the distinctive speech sounds of saňu-viːri.
Symbols enclosed in parentheses represent foreign sounds not
fully integrated into the traditional Saňu-viːri sound system. The symbols
[nas] represent coproduced components of the sounds listed to
their left in the row.
There remain unresolved phonemic problems in the data at hand:
ř vs. ṛ vs. r. ř is in complementary distribution with both ṛ and r, in that ř occurs only after non-tongue-end consonants, while ṛ and r do not appear after such consonants. The historically consistent solution would be to assign ř as an allophone of the phoneme r; but because of the possibility that loanwords with consonant + r exist, I shall leave ř separately marked until its phonemic status is resolved.
ṇ vs. ň. ṇ and ň probably do not contrast intervocalically; and although I have recorded intervocalic ṇ in a few words, the proper transcription probably should be with ň.
Whether ň contrasts with ṇ in final position is not resolved; the one example of final ň is voň 'irrigation intake', which has not been phonetically verified.
e vs. a. In some cases I recorded an open [ɛ], which I have retranscribed here as e. Such forms may in fact be instances of a, which is phonetically a high central vowel, [ɨ] or [ə], rather than e, especially after i.
Length. Contrasts of vocalic length have been recorded; e.g., bâs 'vapor' vs. bâːs 'twelve' vâs 'adze' vs. vâːs 'day' kâṇ 'arrow' vs. laukâːṇ 'blood vessel' pić 'cream' vs. piːć 'pine' bi 'seed' vs. biː 'spade' ko 'whom' vs. koː 'hump' gom 'I went' vs. goːm 'wheat' ṣo 'six' vs. ṣoː 'information' no 'nine' vs. noː 'water trough'. daru 'copper' vs. dâːruː 'gunpowder' âsku˜ 'wire doorkey' vs. kuː˜ 'where'.
However, not all length notation has been verified.
Accent. Accent usually falls on the final syllable of a word, but forms with certain suffixes retain accent on the stem rather than the suffix. In any event, accent is predictable only from word or morphological boundaries, and therefore it is indicated in the phonemic (rather than morphophonemic) transcription used here.