The Sound System of ktʹivřâ·i vari

Table 1.  The Phonemes of ktʹivřâ·i vari.
Articulatory Location
Lip Tongue Nasal Pharynx Larynx Glottis
  tip up [apical] tip down [laminal/dorsal]        
front back front back (retracted)
Stricture Type apico-
dental
apico-
alveolar
lamino-
alveolar
dorso-
velar
(dorso-
postvelar)
Con-
son-
ants
Ob-
stru-
ents
Affricates ć č    
  ǰ [vcd]
Stops p t   k (q) (ˀ)
b d g   [vcd]
Spirants (f) s š (x) () (h)
v z (ž) (ǧ) (ˁ) [vcd]
Sono-
rants
Flaps upward     r        
forward ()
Lateral l  
Approximant   ř
Nasal Stops m n ŋ [nas]
Vowels Close u     i a ( ˜ )
Open o     e â
Pitch Accent   ʹ
Terminal

Contours
full drop   .
rising   ?
steady   ;
half drop   !?
Register Shift   "

Phonemic Inventory and Transcription. The symbols in Table 1 stand for the distinctive speech sounds of the ktʹivřâ·i vari dialect of kâtʹa vari, which is spoken in the community of Ktʹivi in central Nuristân.

Symbols enclosed in parentheses represent foreign sounds not fully integrated into the traditional Ktʹivřâ·i-vari sound system. The symbols [vcd], [nas], and [frn] represent coproduced components of the sounds listed to their left in the row.

Backgrounds in pink indicate sounds whose production affects certain following sounds. Classes of such sounds include:

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