The History of the Kom

This account of the Koms' history was related to me in 1992 by Qâzi Ghulâmullâh and Vakil Muhammad Kabir, in the village of Urtsun, Chitral District, Pâkistân. It agrees with other accounts that I have heard numerous times since 1967.

Qâzi (‘Judge') Ghulâmullâh was recognized as the leading intellectual among the Kom. As well as being fully learned in Islamic law, he was an accomplished linguist, having written an extensive but unpublished grammar of his native language. He was my teacher and mentor throughout my initial two years in Nuristân.

Vakil (‘Representative') Muhammad Kabir is a leading politician of the Kom, and is recognized by his people as their best political orator. His hilarious wit and biting multiple entendres make him an irresistable opponent in political debate, and it is largely to him that I owe my understanding of politics in the region.




`koma˜ sta ˆtårix
related by
Qâzi Ghulâmullâh
and
Vakil Muhammad Kabir
to
Richard F. Strand

The Koms' History
related by
Qâzi Ghulâmullâh
and
Vakil Muhammad Kabir
to
Richard F. Strand

[GU] âska ˆpâliuk âźor giǰa_kunâsi o! âska ˆimo sta mânša, ˆâ·ki, ˆqândor poar ste oastâa suara, ˆâ·kiste ˆqândor poar ste âćti `gek kum, `kobul oastâa, `kobul ste âćti â·kiste, ´kå·pi·så oastâa_ˆâ·kiste âćti, ˆâ·ki, ˆkåmå oastâa ˆâ·kiste `gek kum âćti, ˆkunař oastâa, ˆâ·kiste, ˆâ·kü ina, ˆšavâ oastâa, suara, ˆâ·kiste `ča âćti, ˆkâmnili, `nâ˜i, ˆkâmna... [GU] Paliuk's son Aźor used to say that our people came from Kandahâr, there. From Kandahâr they kept coming to Kâbul, and from Kâbul they came to Kâpisâ. Then they came there to Kâmâ. Then they kept coming to Kunar. Then they came right there, to Sheva. Then they came up to Kamnili, no, Kâmna...
[RS] ˆkâmnile. [RS] Kâmnile [Kom Lake].
[GU] ˆkâmnile, to, oastâa. suara ... [GU] to Kom Lake, they came. Then ...
[RS] âska ˆševâ sta `kâa viri_âsa? [RS] What was that Sheva story you told me?
[GU] ˆšavâ de i·a, ˆimo viri, `ṣiavo. âsa_kuna. [GU] Sheva in our language is called ṣiavo.
[RS] `ṣiavo. `ṣiavo `kâa ŋe_kunta? [RS] ṣiavo. What do they say ṣiavo for?
[GU] `ṣiavo, ina `oa ˆâta přeti i·a `e čalâa ˆbâra kṣeati, `büma `ṣiana `nâ˜i â? `oa. i·a ˆgâloa. â, ˆnâni `âta přeti, `ku·oa_âta přeti `ṣiati ˆbâra kṣeati, ˆâ·kiste ˆdrušavo buna. `oala_oala ˆdrušavo buna. ˆkâtavo buna `oala. `poačol. ˆi·e ŋe `ṣiavo_kunta. `ṣiavo `gek_kti i·a ˆšavâ ŋe, `â·sal, `ṣiavo_âsa ´nuristoni viri ˆi·e sta `nom `ṣiavo_âsa. `ṣiavo. suara. ˆkunař di `gek_kti `ku noř i·a ´nuristoni viri_âsa_kuna. `ku noř_âsa. ˆâ·kiste ˆi·a, ˆpârea, gul ke˜, `strak, ˆkunař_kunta. [GU] ṣiavo is a place where the water runs in and out to wear away part of the earth, right? The water, uh, river runs in, the waves lap in and out and wear it away, until it becomes a cave, a large cave. It becomes a large undercut cave in the river bank. That's what they call a ṣiavo. Thus ṣiavo was originally the word for Sheva in the Nuristâni language. Likewise Kunar in the Nuristâni language was ku noř [‘Olive Stream’], he [Paliuk Azor] says. Now they call the whole valley Kunar.
suara_ˆâ·kiste `ča_âćti ˆkâmnile to ste `ča âćti čae˜ ... So then they came up from Kom Lake and ...
[RS] ˆkâmnile `kor_âsi? [RS] Where was Kom Lake?
[GU] ˆčâŋasarâa `niruku ˆḍânḍunâ `nâ_kunta_â? `okuṇi viri strak. ˆḍânḍunâ. ˆṣâŋe ˆnila_âso mma ˆâ·ki `oa_âso mma. `strak `drea `oa ˆbâra kṣoa˜_gea·sa. [GU] A little ways down from Chagan Sarâi, you know, what they call Ḍanḍuna? In Pashto now [it's called] ḍanḍuna. I understand that formerly there was a lake there; there was water there. Later on the water got drained out.
ˆâ·küste `gek kum `ča âćti, âmki `gul, i·a ˆkunař ninša eli gula˜, to ˆkuiu bo ˆkuiu bo ˆâmkioa˜ ˆâ·kü, `bistâa ˆec̣uk biti ˆâ·küste ˆmânšoa˜ meṣ ˆkuiu bo âmna. ˆkâla, `ṣuč, kti, ˆâmna, `e to˜ ste `e to˜, `e to˜ ste `e to˜ `gek_kti, `giti `ča âćti, ˆdåŋgom, `gul, `nâ_âsa_â? ˆâ·ki bistâa ˆdåŋgom di `do gřom ˆimo mânšoa˜ sta `nom_âsa âska `drea, ˆtâǧir bi·sa ˆdâŋgâm `okuṇia˜ ˆtâǧir kâřa·sa. `ča âćti ˆâ·kü, ˆbårgom, ´nišâgom, `strak kunta âmki ˆbârgřom ǰe ˆniše˜ gřom âi âmki `di imo mânša ... Then they kept coming up the Kunar Valley and the side valleys and stayed here and there for a while, and had fights and wars with the people, and they kept coming up from place to place until they came to Dângâm. Your know that valley? They stayed there. Our people's name for Dângâm is do gřom [‘Mountain Community’]. Later the Afghâns changed the name to Dângâm. Then they came up there to Bârgâm and Nishagâm, as they're now called. But again, our people [called them] bârgřom and niše˜ gřom.
[RS] ˆniše˜ gřom? [RS] niše˜ gřom?
[GU] ˆniše˜ gřom ou˜. `ǰe˜ gřom. `ou˜. `ǰe˜ gřom. [GU] niše˜ gřom: ‘Sitting-Down Community’. Yes, ‘Sitting-Down Community’.
[K] ˆṣâŋe bo ˆâni bâlla âska ča. [K] That was a long time ago; it must have been here.
[GU] `ou˜. ˆniše˜ gřom âi ˆâmki `gek kum `ča âćti čae˜, ina ˆimo sta `gul, to oastâa, ˆgita sta viri ˆâska vâllânâsi. [GU] Yes, so they're in Nishe˜ grom. Then they kept coming up, and they arrived in our country. That's what he used to tell us.
suara, ˆâmki, `eṭa_âsa ˆi·âar poar ste oastâa ˆâmna `kâa, di bo ˆâmki kâča âi. ˆâmki, ˆimo mânša `eṭa, ˆřâmgal poar oastâa. ˆřâmgal, ˆâ·ki di, ˆřâmgal, `e to˜ ˆimo mânšoa˜ sta `to˜, ˆkum·piṭ kunta. And then, there were some who came from the other way, whatever happened and whoever they were. They were some of our people, and they came to Willow Valley. In Willow Valley there's a place, our people's place, which they call kumpiṭ [‘Winepress Ridge’].
[K] `e to˜ ˆkulem_âsa `nâ˜i â? [K] That's a place in Kulem, isn't it?
[GU] ˆkum·piṭ. [GU] Winepress Ridge.
[RS] ˆkum·piṭ `kor_âsa. [RS] Where's Winepress Ridge?
[GU] ˆkum·piṭ, ˆřâmgal. [GU] Winepress Ridge, in Willow Valley.
[RS] ˆřâmgal mi_âsa_â? `nâ˜i. `ktivi poar. [RS] Right in Willow Valley, or on the Ktivi side?
[GU] ˆřâmgal. ˆřâmgal. ˆkum·piṭ_âsa. [GU] In Willow Valley. In Willow Valley, is where Winepress Ridge is.
ˆâ·küste `gek, `gek_kti âćti ča ˆina_âar, ˆbâra_âćti ˆâmna, ˆćâňu poar ˆâmna, ˆkâmaṭol poar, `gek_kum âćti ˆâ·ki oastâa ˆâ·küste ˆkâmaṭol ste, `ṣuč_kti ˆâmkioa˜, ˆkâla kti, ˆćâňu vâňia˜ meṣ ˆkâla bi·sa. ˆćâňu vâňia˜ ˆâtam u teati, `dru_kâřastâa. `čütke˜ ˆâ·kiste ˆâmki, ˆâ·küste `vik vik giti ˆpâta bi ˆbřâkom mânša `suanti, ˆlâka=kâřastâa, `pšol, `kâča ˆmânša `veň âska `gřom_to `veň `pšol `io pšola˜ ˆṣâřoa˜ meṣ âsâ bo ˆâmki `šü˜ vo ˆpâta bistâi! o. `suara `sunti `se ǰukuřpârmaňoa˜, ˆâ·ki, ˆkâmaṭol, âmki ˆćâňu vâňi âćti, ˆřâdor âćti, ˆâtam oaźti ˆâmki `tin piati, `kor `ǰâ·šân, âsa, ˆâmkioa˜ sta ˆmišik_âsa. ˆkâṇa, kti, `tin piati ina ˆgičea noṭ_âsala_â? `ketta noṭ_âsa bo ˆpâřuč_vik, `ea âgařa `noṭ_kti ˆgâtra bi sta, `sunti `pṣuti guâlla bo âska ˆbâria ˆbida biti `giti ˆâmki ˆvilâastâa `strak, `sunti `pṣuistâa `âćaň kti, ˆpâsü, `sü to `pe e to˜_âsa âska ˆâštre to ˆḍâkara=to˜. ˆpâsü `ve âćti ˆâta_âćti ˆâmkioa˜ ˆâ·kiste, `pṣuti gu to˜_to ste˜, ˆpâpali☠giti ˆǰâňistâa âmki `sunti ˆlâka kâřastâa âmki. ˆlâka, `dre ˆâmki ˆbâra u tina sta `kâča, `pšol, âsâ bo ˆṣâřoa˜ meṣ ˆâmki mânšoa˜, ˆâ·küste ˆâmki ˆčâlti ˆâ·ki ste âćti, ˆpâpuřuk poar bâra_âćti, ča, `ni âćti ˆsâskü˜ ǰenastâa. ˆsâskü˜ ste âćti ˆâ·küste, `kombřom oastâa. Then they gradually came out on this side by Ćâňu, by Kom Cliff, and arrived there. Then from Kom Cliff they had a war, a fight; there was a war with the Ćâňu people. The Ćâňu people surrounded and defeated them. Stealthfully, then, [they came,] and they fought each other, and everybody who was left in the village was wiped out, but whatever people were here and there in the mountain stables outside the village with their flocks remained alive. But everyone there in Kom Cliff, including the women and children, were wiped out. The Ćâňu people came at night and attacked, after they [the Kom] had been drinking wine; it was some festival; it was their party. They had a feast and had been drinking wine. It might have been the gičei [new year's] dance, or whichever dance it was; they had been dancing until morning for a week, and they were tired and when they all had gone to sleep, that bâri [slave caste] informer went and told them [the Ćâňu people] that they all had gone to sleep, come now. There was a way across a bridge on the cliff face, a dangerous place, After they had gone to sleep they came across the bridge, attacked, and killed them. They wiped them all out. Later those who had stayed outside --whoever was in the stables -- those people migrated then with their flocks, coming out via Papuruk, and came down and stopped in Sâskü˜. Then from Sâskü˜ they came to Kom Community.
[RS] `kombřom ˆâska vel to ˆǰâša bâlla. [RS] At that time in Kom Community there must have been J̣âshis.
[GU] ˆǰâša_âsi_kunta. ˆâ·kü nima `sunti ˆǰâša_âsâ mma âmki ˆâ·küste ... [GU] They say that there were Jâshis. I understand that from there on downriver they were all Jâshis; then ...
[K] ˆmânaři `ü viati ˆvâllâ to˜_to ˆâ·kü mi ǰenastâi. [K] They [the Kom] were just sitting right there at the discussion, hitting their walking sticks on the ground.
[GU] `ou˜ ˆâ·ki `kombřom âćti ˆâ·ki `niň, `nirgřom kuiu, ˆâ·ki, i·a, `kâa nom_âsa? [GU] Yes, when they came to Kom Community, down somewhere in the Lower Community, what's the name, there?
[K] ˆbâṣia_âsa. ˆbâṣia_âsa_o! [K] It's Dancing Ground. It's Dancing Ground!
[GU] ˆbâṣia. ˆbâṣia vüčpü vik di `âćti ˆâ·ki ǰenastâa, ˆâ·kiste, eṭa ˆmânša oasâ kti giǰa_kâřâlla bo ˆâ·ki e ˆpurduk_âso mma. eṭaˆ mânša ˆvičo oastâa â·kü, ˆbâṣia ˆpârea bistâa kti giǰa_kâřâlla bo, âska ˆgita sta ... [GU] Dancing Ground. They came up to Dancing Ground and sat down around it there. Then, when they said, “Some men have come,” I understand there was an old man there. When they said, “Some guest people have come; they've filled up Dancing Ground there,” such ...
[K] `kâa sta `koř mânša âi? [K] What kind of men are they?
[GU] âska ˆpurduka, ˆkâňa_âsa `nâ˜i â? [GU] The old man is blind, right?
[K] `ou˜. `kâa_`koř mânša âi. [K] Yes. What kind of men are they?
[GU] ea `ǰuk vo_âso mma. [GU] I understand he had a daughter.
ˆâska, `kâa kunta ko `giti `o˜š_kti `âćaň â? _kâřastâa. He told them, “Go look and see what they're doing.”
ˆâ·küste ˆâmkioa˜ ˆgiǰa_kâřa·sâ âmki, ˆeṭa de ˆmânaři kâṣanta ˆeṭa, `dru˜ piṭ kâṣanta ˆeṭa `drua˜ i·poanta ˆeṭa, `suara, `koṇ i·poanta ˆeṭa `lućik ni_âšanta ˆeṭa `kâa_kunta ˆviri vâllânta `ǰenta `u tianta `vřâǰü_kunta; Then they said, “Some of them are whittling their walking sticks; some are whittling their bows; some are fixing their bows; some are fixing their arrows; some are sticking points on their arrows; some are doing whatever, talking and sitting down and standing up and yelling.”
âmki=`gek_kti čae˜, ˆgiǰa_kâřâlla bo, `uto ˆgita_âsa bo ˆâmki `kom âi, suara ˆâmkioa˜ meṣ ˆimo ˆtâŋa˜ `nâ bâmmiš, ˆčâlaň kti giǰa_kâřastâa ˆǰâšaa˜_to âskea. `emmo, âni ste ˆčâlti `emmo. ´hiǰarat kummo. ˆčâlammo âni ste. ˆčâlaň kti giǰa_kâřastâa_ˆâmu de, `ǰüs meṣ ˆkâňa_âsa, ˆpâta bi·sa. âmki `suara mânša, ˆřâdor ˆčâlti gustâa ǰâša. `kombřom, `ćuňi kti. As soon as they said that, the old man said to the Jâshis, “Son of a bitch, if that's the case, they're Kom. We can't stand up to them. Move away! Let's go! Let's run away from this place. Let's seek refuge. Let's migrate from here! Move away!” But he himself remained there with his daughter because he was blind. At night the rest of the Jâshis fled away, leaving Kom Community empty.
ˆâmki `guâlla bo ˆâ·küste, ˆmânša `nâ âćanta `tuare˜ `nâ âćanta imo to ina ˆbřâkom sta ˆmânša `nâ âćanta âmki ˆmânša, `ča guâlla. ˆbřâkom. ˆina `kâa viri_âsa ˆimo âćti ˆâni, ˆpâviri oa·samiš ˆimo to `tuare˜ `nâ âćanta. After they went the Kom thought, “The people aren't coming. The people of the village aren't coming to see us.” So they went up into the town to find out what was going on, thinking, “What's this? We've come here to parley, and they're not coming near.”
`ča enta bo `gřom `ćuňi gřom_âsa ˆâ·ki, e ˆpurduk vâňi·sa âska ˆpurduk, vâňi to ˆâ·kiste âska, ˆmânša_âsi_kâřa to ˆmânša_âsi guâ. ˆčâliâ. `šoa, vâňati, ˆčâlti `guâ suara, ˆâmnoa˜_to ˆimo, ˆkâla kti suara `koṭ `pe tâŋala de `nâ_âsa, kti, ˆčâliâ kti giǰa_kâřa·sa. When they go up they find that it's an empty village. They saw an old man, and when they saw him he said, “There were people here; there were people, but they went away. They moved away. They saw you and moved on, because they couldn't fight you; they didn't have the strength to beat you. So they moved away.”
ˆâ·küste, ˆâ·kü `kombřom, `ü_přâsinastâa. âska ˆpurduk, e `ǰü vo_âso mma, ˆâska âmna ˆkâňa dârea˜ `štri_kâři·sa. ˆkâňa dârea˜ `štri kti ˆâ·küste ˆâ·ki `kombřom `ü_přâsiati, âmki ˆǰâšaa˜ sta ˆpâta bi gul di, ˆâmna, ˆpâčogul, ˆâmna di `vř☠ŋutastâa, ˆkâmu vř☠ŋutastâa, ˆâkiste ˆbinořm bulâ `vâre kâča inâar, ˆkâṭokšol `vř☠ŋutastâa `pitikal bulâ ... So then the Kom settled down in Kom Community. The old man had a daughter, I hear, and she was made wife by Blind Man's Boys. Blind Man's Boys made her their wife and they settled down there in Kom Community, and the remaining valleys of the Jâshis, in the outlying areas, were also taken from them; Kâmu was taken from them; then Binio Community and other places here and there like Kâṭok's Stable were taken from them, and for instance Piti Valley ...
[K] `pitikal ˆbâruku, ˆkâṭokšol. [K] Kâṭok's Stable, a little way out from Piti Valley.
[GU] ˆkâṭokšol. `ou˜. ˆkâṭokšol. [GU] Kâṭok's Stable, yes, Kâṭok's Stable.
[RS] ˆâska di ˆǰâšaa˜ sta_âsi â? [RS] Was that the Jâshi's also?
[GU] ˆǰâšaa˜ sta_âsi. `ou˜, ˆâta_ṭikoaň ˆâ·kü `gřom âi ˆǰâšaa˜ sta ... [GU] That was the Jâshi's. All the way into the valley there were Jâshi villages there.
[K] `[xx]břom ˆpâ˜ure ˆâstro `nâ_âsa_â? ˆâska ˆǰâšaa˜ sta_âsa. [K] You know Âstro up from the Upper Community? That was the Jâshis'.
[GU] `gřom, ˆâ·ki `pitikal, ˆâta_ṭikoaň vik âmna `ṣâŋe sta ˆâmo sta ˆniṣon `vâre âmna ˆgita sta, eṭa `piṭa˜_to `âi ˆâ·kü. ˆkřâmâa deš bulâ `pitikal ˆpâ˜uru ˆkřâmâa deš `nire ˆâ·kü `e to˜ ˆbâbardeš, kunta `nâ˜i â? ˆbâbarkřom bâlla, ˆbâria˜ bu to˜, `to˜ bâlla. ˆbâbardeš suara, ˆkřâmâa deš, ˆkřumâa sta. ˆkřâmâa deš `pitikal ˆbřâkom ˆpâ˜uruk e ˆniṣo_âsa ˆâske ŋe ˆkřâmâa deš kunta. `iâni, ˆpřâkumâa to˜, kunta `nâ˜i â? `eṭa to˜_to ˆpřâkumâa to˜_kunta ˆâ·kü ˆi·a ŋe ˆkřâmâa deš kunta ea˜ âska, ˆâmkioa˜ sta âska ´muqâddâsota sta, `to˜ bâlla, âmki, ´mâzhâbi to˜. ˆâska, ˆkřumâa_âsi, ´estirom křumâa sta de `kula_âi `nâ˜i â? âska `ǰukuřoa sta ˆâska de e, ´muqâddâs ǰukuř_âsa. ˆkřumâa e `ǰukuř ˆkřumâa, `ea di ˆâska `vâa kṣeati, âsa `nâ˜i â? `lâ·kâ, ˆpâ˜uň suara, ´râbbâno_â suara, `oali, `ǰukuř, ´muqâddâs ǰukuř, ˆâska de, `disaňi_âsa. `ea xudâi, ˆimo mânšoa˜ sta `disaňi_âsa. `ǰukuř_âsa. `suara, `moč âi. `giṣ bulâ, suara `mone bulâ, `vâre âmna `kâča, ˆâmki de, ˆâmkioa˜ de `tü źâňanša `tua streastâa `nâ˜i â? [GU] There all the way into Piti Valley there are communities and the remains of ancient houses, etc., on some of the ridges there. For instance, Křâmâa Village, up above Piti Valley, Křâmâa Village, and downstream in one place called Bâri Village, right? That must have been their Bâri Community, the place where the bâris were. Bâri Village. And Křâmâa Village was Křumâi's place. Upwards away from the village of Piti Valley there's a cultivated area that they call Křâmâa Village. That is, they call it Křumâi's Place, right? There are some places they call Křumâi's Place; for that one there they say křâmâa deš. Uh, it must have been their sacred place -- those religious places. There was Křumâi – they used to call it Mercy-Pleading Křumâi's [place], right? That woman's -- she was a holy woman. Křumâi, a woman, Křumâi. Another -- she [Křumâi] was lower, right? -- like, higher, divine, important woman, a holy woman, was Disaňi. One of our peoples' gods was Disaňi; she was a woman. The rest were males, for instance, Gish and Mone, and whoever else. You know them all; you've written them down, right?
[RS] `suara, âmki ˆbinio de, `šo mânša ˆâ·ki `kombřom `âćto˜_to de, ˆâsi_â? [RS] Regarding the Binio, were they there when your people came to Kom Community?
[GU] ˆbinio ˆṣâŋe ste âi. ˆṣâŋe oastâa. ˆbinio ˆṣâŋe oastâa. `ou˜. ˆbinio ˆṣâŋe oastâa; `čok mânša âi, ˆǰâmčo ǰe ˆbinio e. ˆâmki de ˆbinio `bun ste oastâa_kunta, `bun kor di_âsala bo, ˆǰâmčo `ǰâm ste oastâa_kunta. [GU] The Binio were there from long before. They came before. Yes; the Binio came before; they are few people, the Jâmjos and the Binios. They say the Binios came from Bun, wherever Bun is. And the Jâmcos čame from Jâm.
[RS] ˆǰâmâč. [RS] ǰamâč.
[GU] `â? [GU] Huh?
[RS] ˆǰâmâč, ste. ˆâ·ki `vâagal poar. [RS] From Jamâč. There in Vâi Valley.
[GU] ˆǰâmoč nom_âsa_`ou˜. [GU] Yes, there's a name ǰâmoč.
[K] `vâi mi `âi e ča. `vâi mi `âi ča. `štrak di giǰa_kula_âsamiš. ˆǰâmčoa˜ ŋe `štrak di giǰa_kula_âsamiš suara, ˆâmna, `vâi âi. [K] They're really just Vâis! There're really just Vâis. Even now we say so. Even now we say that they're Vâis.
[RS] `âsal viri de ´ǰâmâčo_kula âi, ˆâ·kiste ... [RS] The original word used to be ǰamâčo, then ...
[GU] `ou˜, `ǰâm, `ǰo bi·sa, `drea ˆǰâmčo bi·sa. `gi☠ˆina ˆimo viri to, ˆzândor hârf to, `ni teti bi bo ˆâska, če, `ǰam buna. [GU] Yes, it became ǰâm ǰo; later it became ǰâmčo. In our language, if it follows a voiced letter, a č just becomes ǰ.
[RS] `ǰam buna `ou˜. [RS] Yes, it becomes ǰ.
[GU] ˆzândor hârf to `ni teti bi bo. [GU] If it's following a voiced letter.
[RS] `ou˜ `ou˜, ˆi·a_âsa ča. [laugh]. [RS] Yes, yes. That's it! [laugh]
`suara âmki ˆbinio de, ˆgiǰa bo de âmki, ˆǰâšaa˜ meṣ, `e·por bunâsi_â? ˆâ·ki vel to. So then, if it's as you say, were the Binios living together with the Jâshis at that time?
[GU] `ou˜, âmki, `ou˜. ˆâmki, ˆâmki, `čok âi `nâ˜i â? ˆbinio ǰe ˆǰâmčo e. ˆturća˜ gřom âi ˆâmkioa˜. [GU] Yes. But they were few people, the Binios and the Jâmčos. They had small communities.
ˆbinio ˆâmna ˆnüštruk ˆbiliuk ˆâro_âsâ mma_kunta ˆâmki ˆbiliuk ˆârvor vo, ˆbiliuk ˆkâṭavo, ˆâmki de, e ˆpurǰik di_âsa, ˆâskoa `kum â? `â? They say that the Binios were at first very rich. They were very wealthy and very powerful. There's also a story; shall I tell it? Huh?
âska ˆpurǰik_âsa ˆâmki ˆgiǰa, ˆâmkioa˜ `drea, ˆâluća˜ mišto˜_to, ˆkilâř meṣ âluća˜ mišistâa. ˆkilâř meṣ. `voṭa˜ meṣ mišanta `nâ˜i â? ˆâluća˜. ˆâmkioa˜ ˆârvor to čae˜, ˆbiliuk, `pü˜ bâlla bo ˆâ·kiste ča âmki ˆkilâř, `kâa di ˆâluć kummiš `âćaň âmna ˆkilâř meṣ mi mišammo kti, ˆkilâř meṣ âluća˜ mišistâa_kunta ˆâ·kiste ˆâmkioa˜, âmki ˆkilâř meṣ ˆâluća˜ miši sta bi bo ˆâ·ki_kâřa to suara, ˆxudâia ˆmâṣa_kâřa·sa âmkioa˜ suara `mřora ˆmâṣa kti ča ˆâmki, ˆmâkař_kâřastâa. ˆârâkpâkpâk kum gustâa_kuna_â? The story is, they said later, that when they were playing quoits, they played with cheeses. With cheeses. They play quoits with stones, right? -- round stones. In their wealth, when they became very predominant, then they said, “Let's make those cheeses our quoits; come on, let's just play quoits with these cheeses,” and they played quoits with cheeses, they say. So then if they would have to play quoits with those cheeses -- after they did it there -- God got angry at them. The Lord got angry, and he turned them into monkeys. And they went off saying “Ârâkpâkpâk.”
[K] ˆârâkpâkpâk. `šâbâs. o ˆi·a viri `ü tâřa·sa. ˆârâkpâkpâk. [K] “Ârâkpâkpâk”. Bravo. That's the word that they set down. “Ârâkpâkpâk”.
[GU] ˆârâkpâkpak kum, âmki ˆmâkař. `c̣o vianâso mma. [GU] Those monkeys went off saying, “Ârâkpâkpâk.” They were shouting it, I'm told.
[K] ppppp [labial trill]. o ˆi·a di kâřa·sa. ˆi·a di kâřa·sa. [K] “ppppp” [Bronx cheer]. They also said that. They also said that.
[RS] `ou˜, ˆi·a viri de ˆâni mi bi·sa, `nâ˜i â? `tua ˆbâbdi âćna? [RS] Yes, that story happened just here, right? Do you remember?
[K] `mâtâ kša. `mâtâ kša. ˆbâbdi âćna. [K] Wait, wait. I remember.
`o˜š_kša_o? `e·por di_kâřa·si ˆârâkpâkpâk. `bi to ča, `ü te to˜_to `ppppp. `ppus de `strak di_kunta binio. ˆvâllâla bi bo, `ppppp. ˆbinio vâllâla bi bo ne? ˆü te to˜_to ča, `mâṣa bi bo, ˆpppp. `pppp. `štrak di kunta. ˆârâkpâkpâk. kti ča, `pppp. ˆkâřa·sa_kunta_o? ˆâmkioa˜. [laugh]. Look here, will you? They said that along with “ârâkpâkpâk”. Whenever it happened, at the end there would be a “ppppp”. Even today the people in Binio Community do it. Whenever they are talking, “ppppp.” Whenever a Binio is talking, you know? At the end if he is angry, “ppppp.” Even now they do it. After “ârâkpâkpâk,” they said “ppppp,” so they say! [laugh]
[RS] [laugh] ˆmâkař bistâa, `kša_â? [RS] [laugh] So they became monkeys, huh?
[GU] âmna ˆgita sta viri, ˆmâkař bistâa_kunta. [GU] It's like that. They say they became monkeys.
[RS] ˆâ·kiste kâa bistâa. [RS] Then what became of them?
[GU] ˆâ·kiste `püs bistâa. `püs bistâa. [GU] Then they disappeared. They disappeared.
[RS] suara âmki ˆpâta bi sta de ˆmâkař `nâ bi sta_âsi `nâ˜i â? [RS] So the ones who remain were ones that didn't become monkeys, huh?
[GU] `â? `ou˜. ˆâmna suara ˆpâta bi sta `kor âar ste di_âsala bo ˆimo `kâa di ˆźâňammo. ˆâmki ˆbiliuk ˆṣâŋe ˆgita sta, ˆpurǰik vilânta. ˆâmki `kâča `kuiu ... [GU] Huh? Yes. The ones who remain, wherever they might have come from; what do we know? Those are very ancient kinds of stories that they tell. Whoever and wherever ...
[K] `pšol, `pšol ˆâluća˜ mišistâi. `pšol ˆâluća˜ mišistâi, âmki `pšol sta de ˆmâkař bistâi; `pšol âmki ˆâluća˜ mišala. ˆmâkař biti `gustâi âmki. ˆâmki ˆâ·kiste ča, `kâča di ˆâ·kiste ˆbřâkom âćla bâlla, `kâča `nâ˜i â? âmki ˆmâkař bi sta. ˆmâkař bi sta. o ˆâmki, âska ˆâmče˜ viria de `pe u teti ča, ˆârâkpâkpâk ˆâ·ki_kâřa·sa, ˆbřâkom âćti_kâřa·sa âmkioa˜ ˆbinořm âćti. `pšol, `pšol ste. [K] In the stable -- they played quoits in the stable. They played quoits in the stable. The ones in the stable became monkeys, those quoits players in the stable. They became monkeys and went off. And then some might have come back to the village, and some not, right? Those who became monkeys. The ones who became monkeys. They put aside their own language and said “Ârâkpâkpâk” there. They came back to the village and said it, back in Binio Community, coming from the stable.
[GU] `pšol, stoa˜ ina, ˆkilâř meṣ ˆâluća˜ mišistâa. [GU] The ones in the stable were playing quoits with cheeses.
[K] ˆâ·ki ˆbřâkom âćti ča ˆârâkpâkpâk kâřa to ča, `ü te to˜_to ča˜, `ppppp. ˆi·ea di kunâsâ mma. `štrak ˆâ·ki ˆbinio âbdaloan_kila ˆimoa źâňa to˜_to mi âmki ˆpurda bilio˜, âmki, ˆbinio. ˆvâllâla bi to `ü tâřa to ˆmâṣa bi to eṭa vor `kâa? `di. `c̣o c̣o `nâ přenta_â? `pppp. `pppp. ˆi·ea ˆbiliuk kunâsi. `utra_o e ˆlâtri kâřa·sa âmkioa˜_kârek, ˆimo enâsamiš! [laugh]. ˆkâřa·sa ˆṣâŋe âmnoa˜. ina ˆârâkpâkpâk to `ü te to˜_to de `ppppusa de_kâřa·sa âmnoa˜. [laugh] [K] They came back there to the village, and after they said “Ârâkpâkpâk” at the end, “ppppp”. They would say that, too, we hear. Now Binio Abdullâh Khân's people there, even since we've known them, those old Binios, they -- whenever they would talk, at the end if they were angry sometimes -- you know, when they're shouting at each other --“pppp.” “pppp.” They used to say it a lot. We would say to each other, “Son of a bitch, they let one!” [laugh] They did that in the old days. At the end of the “Ârâkpâkpâk,” they said “ppppp.” [laugh]
[GU] âmna ˆgita sta purǰik `âi? [GU] These are the kind of stories there are.
[RS] `i˜a de ˆgita sta purǰik ˆâni sâŋâa·sa `nâ˜i â? [RS] I heard the same sort of story here, right?
[K] `čare ˆâni ˆüćüṇ purduk di sâip, ˆâni mi·sol ˆâni, ˆgâmuṭia˜ ǰe suara ˆmi·sol, i·a ˆâluć_kti, ˆkilâřa˜ ˆṭâre˜ kti di ča, ˆâni mišti ˆpâṣoa˜ âmki, `ǧârak bâ kti e ˆpurǰik ˆâni, `čare `ćkino purduka di vilâio ˆine to. [K] Up here an old Urtsun man -- up there Old Man Ćkino told this one [Rich] a story also, like, here they made quoits out of wheat chappaties and targets out of cheese, and after they played here, in the evening they were drowned.
[GU] `ou˜. `âr ´mântiqâ to ˆtâǧir kunta, purǰik. ˆpurǰika˜ sta âska, ˆi·a ˆtâǧir buna âska. ˆâmki, ˆbârdošt, ´muxtâlif buna `nâ˜i â? ˆpurǰika˜ ča˜ ˆâ·kiste âmki, `ea purǰik mi, `ča mân·tiqâa˜_to, `küř küř, râqâm, ˆâska ne? `küř küř, ˆâska bi sta buna. âska _`âin ˆâska ˆpurǰik `nâ buna, `âr mân·tiqâ to âska, `ea purǰik mi, `čuk qi·sam buna `nâ˜i â? `küř, ´mân·tiqâa˜_to `küř, âmna ˆmânša, ˆâmče˜ sta `fi·kar meṣ ˆâmče˜ sta ˆâske meṣ ˆâmna `kâa ˆsâŋâa·sa bo ˆâmkioa˜ ˆuto muṭa kti ča☠`gâati `vâr râqâm_kti i·poanta. [GU] Yes, in every region they change a story. The stories' -- that -- it changes. They become removed and separate, right? Stories -- then they -- a single story in several regions has separate forms; it -- right? -- it becomes separated. The story doesn't remain the same; in each region a single story becomes however many kinds, right? In separate regions these separate peoples take them and make them into something else, with their own thoughts and their own whatever; whatever they've heard, they make them longer or shorter.
[RS] âmki ˆǰâša `kor ste oa·sala bo? [RS] Where might the Jâshis have come from?
[GU] ˆǰâǰa, `oasta imo de `egek_kti `kuiu `i˜a, de `kuiu `küt_kti, ˆǰâǰa oasa=stoa˜, ˆâmnoa˜ `küt_kti `küt_kti `küt_kti, `i˜a ˆâni, ˆimo bâkul `küt_kti `kâa `ṭi˜č `nâ buna ˆṣâŋe ste ânü âi, kunta, imo mânša. ˆṣâŋe ste âmna, ´vâtâni ˆâsli, ´vâtâni mânša, [GU] The Jâjis' origin we – I've asked around so much about the Jâjis' origins here in our country, but there's not a clue. Our people say that are here from old times. From old times they are the original inhabitants ...
[K] ˆâska de `nâ mi bi bo `kâa ˆmâṇanta ˆâ·kiste ča ˆâ·kiste, âska, ´si·kândâr sta ˆsaňi mânša ˆpârea ˆpâta bistâi kti ... [K] If that's not just what happened, then what do they say? They say then that Alexander's army people remained all over ...
[GU] `nâ˜i, ˆâmna `vâre âi. ina `dre, âmna, ´tâqiqot kula mânšoa˜ `vâre mânšoa˜, ˆbâre âtaň âćla mânšoa˜ ina, ´nâsâriâp pta·sa `nâ˜i â? `âmna, ´ünoni âi kti. suara, `xudi ˆimo mânša, ˆǰâša, ˆâsli ´vâtâni mânša âi ˆâmki `kor ste oasa=sta, `ṭi˜č `nâ âi_kunta. ˆǰâša ǰe âmna ˆpřâsü˜ e. ˆpřâsü˜ de ˆâsli vâtâni mânša âi âni, ´nuriston, ˆâmki, suara, `kuiu ste oasa=sta, ˆimo sta mânša `ṭi˜č `nâ vo âi, ˆâmna de ˆinâar, ina ˆluǧât o˜š_kti, ˆǰâ·ša kti, ˆǰâ·ša kti, `ǰâš de ´ˁârâbi viri ˆsaňi ŋe_kunta. `ǰâš. ba ´qåriå-e `ǰaš-e ´sikandar-e-ˆazam âmna ´nâvi·sindâgon âmna ˆviri `dre, `io sta fi·kar meṣ, ˆâmki streastâa. ˆâni ˆâska bi bo di ˆǰâ·ša, ´ˁârâbi kâlimâ_âsa ´ˁârâbi kâlimâ ˆâska vel to, `dre `kâa, viri bâlla bo. [GU] No they're someone else. Later, these research people, other people who came from outside, gave this opinion, that they are Greeks. But for our own people, the Jâshis are the original inhabitants, and they say they have no idea where the Jâshis came from. The Jâshis and the Prâsü˜. The Prâsü˜ are also original inhabitants here in Nuristân, and wherever they came from our people have no idea. On the one hand some people have looked at this word and made it into ǰâ·ši, and they say ǰaš is Arabic for “army.” ǰaš. “Ba qâriâ-e ǰaš-e sikandar-e-azam.” These writers wrote these words later, with their own thinking. Here if that's the case, ǰâ·ši is an Arabic word, and an Arabic word at that time -- then later whatever might have happened?
[RS] âmki ˆkâta `čare ˆbřâkamâṭol kâta de, `ktivi ste oastâi `nâ˜i â? âska `gul ˆṣâŋe ˆâmkioa˜ `nâ oasou˜ `ku to billi. [RS] The Kâtas up in Brakamatol, they came from Ktivi, right? Before they came, who did their country belong to?
[K] ˆkâtoa˜ nâ oasou˜ ˆkâtakal `ku to billi_kuna_o! [K] He's asking who Kâtagal belonged to before the Kâtas came!
[GU] ˆâ·ki de ˆǰâša âi. [GU] There were Jâshis there too.
[RS] ˆǰâša âi â? nâ˜i. ˆbilio˜. [RS] Were they Jâshis, or Chitralis?
[K] ˆǰâša âi. ˆbilio˜ `nâ âi. [K] They were Jâshis. They weren't Chitralis.
[RS] ˆâ·ki ˆtričakal di kâča bâlla. [RS] Who might have been there in Three Upper Valleys?
[K] ˆi·a `gi☠ˆćuňi gul_âsa. ˆćuňi gul âi. ˆpṣuvor `čama, `kâa `nâ gřom âi; `ča pâčuřuk gřom ˆkâtakal ˆpṣuvor_âsa. ˆpṣuvor. ˆi·a, `pṣa vor. `pṣa vor. `pṣa. `pṣe sta `vor. ˆpṣavor. `kâi_âsala bo e `pṣa vor. ˆi·a ´âxeri gřom_âsa. `čaň de `štrak ˆimoa źâňa to˜_to `gřom_kâřâ ča. ˆina vâllâna. ˆina ˆǰâša âi `nâ_kunša_â? `čaň ˆǰâša âi. `dre ˆǰâno dârea˜ `io pâmüč âmna ˆbřâźoa˜ `ṣuč `nâ_kâřo? ˆâ·ki mi, ˆǰâšpurduk `io nâřik ˆdâdü âsâ mma ča. [K] That was just an empty valley; they're empty valleys. From Pshuvor on up there are no villages. The uppermost village in Kâta Valley is Pshuvor. Pshuvor. It's pṣa vor. pṣa [‘shaman’]. pṣe sta vor [‘Shaman's Turn’]. pṣavor. Whatever it is -- a pṣa vor. It's the last village. Now in our lifetime communities were built further up. That's what he's talking about. This is where the Jâshis are, isn't that what you're saying? Further up there are Jâshis. Later, you know when Jâno's Boys had a fratricidal war among themselves? I hear there were one or two old Jâshis there then.
[RS] e ˆkâtkuřea ˆṣâŋe ˆâ·ki `ṣkurikal, ˆâ·ki poar de ˆbilioa˜ sta âsi kti vilâiom. [RS] A Kâta fellow told me that in the old days Crooked Valley belonged to the Chitralis.
[GU] ˆi·âar ˆâ·ki `kuiu, âmki_ˆgâbur tuare˜ de `âi. [GU] There are some nearby there on the other side in Gabur.
[RS] ˆâ·ki ˆbilio˜ ǰenastâi suara ˆimoa ˆčâleastâi kti suara ... [RS] He said that there were Chitralis living there, and that they made them move away, and ...
[K] ˆkâṣik ˆkâṣik iela_âi, ˆkâṣik ˆkâṣik. ˆkâṣik ˆkâṣik iela_âi. ˆbilioa˜ gul `nâ_âsa. `o˜š_kša_o? ˆmišoa˜ ˆpârea_kunta `nâ˜i â? ˆkâṣik ˆkâṣik iela_âi. `vü âćti `ča u tiati ča, ˆbilio˜ de ˆâni ˆbiliuk qom bo `nâ˜i â? ˆgâbur ste poar `pü giti ča ˆmi·sol, ˆkâṣati, ˆkâṣti, ˆâni ŋe âvařastâa ˆâni ŋe. ˆâni ŋe. ˆbilio˜ de ˆvidařiâ bo mâgâm `koma˜ vidařeaâ. ˆguǰara di ˆvidařiâ bo `koma˜ vidařeaâ. ˆiâqin_kša qozi sâip. [K] They would rob each other. Robbing back and forth. They would rob each other. It wasn't the Chitralis' country. Look at that! They're telling lies all over, aren't they? They would rob each other. They would come over and stay up there; the Chitralis were a big tribe here, right? They went over from Gabur and robbed them and brought it back for use here. For here. If the Chitralis were afraid, it was the Kom who scared them. If the Gujars were afraid, it was the Kom who scared them. Be assured of that, Mr. Judge.
[GU] ˆpârea âar ˆâtam_kâći·sa `dre, ´âfǧoniston ´musalmon bo `nâ˜i â? ´musalmon bi to ča☠ˆâ·kiste, e, ˆpučći sa pṭipâar ´musalmon bâ? de ˆâmki ^ˀislom, `peň, ^ˀislom ˆtâbliq bi to. [GU] From all sides they have aimed in at us, later when Afghânistân became Muslim, right? After they became Muslims -- then it was a hundred years afterwards that they became Muslims, right? After Islam was propagated from beyond.
[K] ˆqozi sâip ina `ea kuṭ viri, ˆvâňa to˜ `ke nâ_kunša ˆṣiŋaro kti tü. `ča bâgul mânša, ina ˆpâmuři piṭ, ˆmânše to, ˆâta_pili☠oasâ? o ˆi·ea vilâv_â? [K] Mr. Judge. I want to ask you one thing up front; why don't you say it, eloquently. How many countries' peoples have come to invade the people of Clay Ridge [epithet for Kom Community]? Please tell us that.
[GU] `sunti ˆpâ·puṇor mânša mi de ˆâtam oaźiâ. ˆâmki ^ˀislom oasi to, `küře˜, ´nuriston, ´mu·salmon `nâ bâ `nâ˜i â? `sunti ˆpâ·puṇor mânša, âmki ´pâṣâ·i di mu·salmon bâ. ´pâṣâ·i di mu·salmon bâ, ˆâ·küste ˆâmkioa˜ `ṣuč ˆimo sta, `püre `ktivi ˆřâmgal poar ´pâṣâ·ia˜ meṣ, `okuṇia˜ meṣ, ´lâǧmânia˜ meṣ suara, ˆâ·ki ˆṣuč ˆâmkioa˜ ˆâ·kü ubaǰeao. suara, ˆâ·küste ˆinâara, ˆimo to de `okuṇi di ˆbilio˜ di, ´bâdâxšân di `sunti ˆpâ·puṇor ˆâtam gustâa ˆâni giǰa ˆǧâzo kti, ˆâmna ˆǰâňi bo, ˆšâ·it, ˆimo, ˆǧåzi bummiš, ˆsâvop buna ´ǰânâti bummiš_kti, ˆpâ·puṇor sta `sunti imo sta mânšoa˜_to liṣṭistâi. ˆtâqribân, ˆâska `čuk buna? `dić, `dić sât sa. ˆimo sta ˆmânšoa˜, meṣ `ṣuč kâřa·sa âmkioa˜. ˆâtam u teastâa, ´muHâ·sirâ_kâřastâa ˆimo mânša `dić sât sa. `dić sât sa `pṭipâar ˆâni ´mu·salmon bâ `nâ˜i â? `dić sât sa ˆimo sta, ˆmânša ˆâtam u teastâi o âni. ´muHå·sirâ âi. ˆâte˜ ˆânü mi, ˆbâźü i·peati `vâre ˆbâ·sano, i·peati, suara, ˆâmče˜ ´pâidâvor âmčati ˆâmče˜ sta `ptul âšti ˆâmče˜ ṣâřoa˜ meṣ ˆâmče˜ sta ˆčamdramoa˜ meṣ, `kudüm âmče˜ sta ˆâpše˜_to, `pšati, ˆkâćo ˆbiliuk âšala_âi, ˆkârmor ˆbiliuk kula_âi; ˆṣâřa mâti ˆâno, `źu, ˆânua, [xx]. ˆâmki `ṣuč kâřastâa, ˆâmki, `dru štor vo âi. `koṇa˜ viati, ˆpâṣuč iela_âi `nâ˜i â? `gek_kti. ˆčari přâćuk kti `io gestuk_gestuk, ˆpřâćuk, ˆkulčâa˜ i·peati ˆamkioa˜, ˆâtam_âṭleati. ˆâ·kiste, ˆmâčaâar sta ˆliliok `sunti, ˆbâre pü, ˆpâla bula_âi, ˆpâla, `gul to ˆâ·kiste `čür ela_âi `giti ˆbâǰüř giti, `dir giti, ˆbâṭxel to vik, `giti `ni giti, ˆkunař, `ni_ṭikti `viati `giti ˆâmkioa˜, ´musalmona˜ ǰâňati ˆâćla_âi, ˆâni `mol kâroala_âi, ˆâ·kiste ˆâmki `nom vo âi ˆâmkioa˜, ´båduri, ˆâmki `sunti `tua streastâa `nâ˜i â? ˆâska, `dić sât sa, suara ˆimo mânša ˆâtam u teastâi_o! ^ˀislom oasi to ste biti ou˜. ˆâni di ´muHå·sirâ, ˆâtam u teastâa. âmki `dić sât sa `pṭipâara `dre â·kiste ina, ´musalmon, [GU] All the peoples around us have attacked us. When Islam came, only Nuristân did not become Islamic, right? All the people around, even the Pashais became Muslims. Even the Pashais became Muslims. Then our people over on the Ktivi and Willow Valley side had a war there with the Pashais, with the Afghâns, with the Laghmânis; they started the war there. And then on this side the Afghâns and the Chitralis and Badakhshân and everybody around us invaded, They say to make a campaign here and become holy warriors, and if they get killed, they become martyrs, because it's a pious act and they'll go to heaven. So all the surrounding people attacked our people. For approximately -- how long has it been? -- twelve hundred years they made war with our people. Our people were boxed in and beseiged for twelve hundred years. Twelve hundred years later they became Muslims here, right? For twelve hundred years our people were boxed in right here. They're beseiged. Right here in the midst, making cloaks, making clothing, wearing their own apparel, planting their own fields, with their own livestock, with their own tools, their own work, grinding in their mills, they would plant a lot of millet; they would make a lot of ritual animal sacrifices, and slaughter livestock and [consume] the meat, milk, and ghee. They made war, and had bows and quivers of arrows. They would go to war shooting arrows, right? Like that. They would make raiding crackers, little crackers, cookies this size, stuff them in their clothes. Then all the young males would stand guard on the perimeter, guards for the country. Then they would go on raids; they would go to Bajaur, and Dir, all the way to Baṭ Khel; or they would go down and reach Kunar and strike and kill those Muslims and come back. Here they would get war crests and become famous for their heroism. You've written all these things down, right. For those twelve hundred years they had our people boxed in! Since Islam had arrived, yes. They were beseiged and boxed in. Later after those twelve hundred years, this Muslim ...
[K] `ea kuṭ viri ko `o˜ di ko `i, ko ˆinea, ko ˆinea pi·kar kšaň â? ko. `kom. ˆčaroa˜_go `nâ˜i â? `kom. ˆi·e to ste `pâaň, ˆimo viri vo `čuk âi bo, ˆřâmgal ˆkulem, ˆpuṣol o, `gek kum âćti ˆpřâsü˜ `gek_kti âćti ˆkâta `nâ âi â? `kâa ˆimo viri vo. ´nuristoni viri `nâ_kunta_â? `to ´pâṣâ·i. ˆkâmkuřa ˆkâla dükšül vo_âsa_kâřoš `nâ˜i â? `nüške˜ ˆinea. `dić sât sol, ˆimo meṣ, `koṇ ˆbâǰa_âšti, âmna ˆmânša `kâakti ˆčâloasta bulâ kti `ve_piliâ˜, oa·sala_â? višanam o˜ć. `o˜ `gi☠`i˜ viri ina `egek to ˆpâři·sa mi ou˜. `štrak di, imoa kâćanta. `štrak di kâćanta. `štrak di kâćanta. `ou˜. `kombřom ste `püs bi to, ina `ketta `kombřom sta ina, ˆkâmaston, ˆkâmkuřoa˜ sta i·a `oala_to˜, `ǰe to˜, [K] Think about this one thing, why don't you. Separate out the Kom, right? From there on further out, however many people who have our language, in Willow Valley, in Kulem, in Waterfall, and keep coming further to the Prâsü˜, and keep coming to, you know, the Kâta? You know, those who have our language. What they call Nuristâni language, right? Out to the Pashai. The Kom are a bellicose people, as this one [the Judge] said to you a little while ago, right? I think that for 1200 years they've had their arrows knocked, for us, wondering how they could get these people to move away, and they probably invaded, right? I've just on my own arrived at the conclusion that they're still after us. They're still after us. They're still after us. Yes. If they [the Kom] would only disappear from Kom Community, whoever is from Kom Community, from Kâmastân, the great place, the seat of the sons of the Kom ...
[GU] `kombřom sta `nom ˆṣâŋe ˆkâmaston, `lâalua˜_to, [GU] Kom Community's name in the old days was Kâmaston, in the songs.
[K] ˆkâmaston. ´kâmaston. ´kâmaston de âska `ǰoi bo `nâ˜i â? `koma˜ sta `ston `koma˜ sta _´ârom+go. `ǰe to˜. `ou˜. ˆâsli nom ˆi·a_âsa. [K] Kâmaston. Kâmaston. Kâmaston was the place, right? The Koms' stân, the Koms' sanctuary, seat. Yes. That's the original name.
[GU] `ea ˆâska, e ˆtâtik to_âsa `nâ˜i â? ˆkâmaston `ćit gřunsio kti `kâakti_âsa bo e `lâalu. [GU] It's in a song, right? It goes, “kâmaston ćit gřunsio” [‘fertilizer piled up in Kâmastân', implying that they were very rich in livestock] -- however that song was.
[K] ˆkâmaston `ćit gřunsio kti_âsa ˆkâmaston mi·sol â `xuda, i·a, ˆsutrum_sur [xx] `nâ bi bo `mřoŋ `mřeli buna. ˆi·a di ˆkâmaston_to ´e·šorâ_âsa ča. [K] That's just how it is: “kâmaston ćit gřunsio.” Kâmaston, like, for example, if it wasn't [xx] in Sutrum's Pond, the markhor doe would die. [words unclear] That was a symbol of Kâmaston, too.
[GU] ˆkâmaston sta_âska ˆtâtik_âsa_o! ˆtâtik_âsa. i·a ˆtâtik to âmna, `io sta `nom `kombřom sta ˆkâmaston_âsa. ˆṣâŋe sta ˆlâalua˜_to. [GU] That's the song about Kâmaston! That's the song. In that song Kom Community's own name is Kâmaston, in the songs of the old times.
[RS] `nüške˜_âmki ˆmânšoa˜ ŋe, `berkuṭ nima, `kâa nom tenâsaš? [RS] A little while ago what was the name you were calling the people from Ber Tower on downriver?
[K] `ou˜, `mâtâ kša. `štrak_â, `ea de ´sindâni_kummiš ˆnâ˜i â? ´sindâni. `okuṇi viri_âsa. ´sindâni. i·a ´sindâni `kuiu vik_âsa bo, ˆâ·kü de ˆinea `nom vilâioš; [K] Yes, wait a minute. Now we call them Sindani, right? Sindani. It's Pashto. Sindani. This one [the Judge] told you the names down to however far this Sindani extends.
[GU] ˆi·a `okuṇi viri_âsa! [GU] It's Pashto.
[K] `o˜ `kâa di ˆmâṇnam, `okuṇi viri_âsa mi de ˆkâřa·sa i˜a ča. ˆâ·kü vik ina ´sindâni `nâ_âsa_â? i·a ´sindâni to vik ˆinea ˆvilâioš. `kâakti vilâioš `o˜š_kša_â? ˆinea vilâioš mi·sol ina ´ni·šâgom. ina ˆmi·sol ˆbârgom. ina suara ˆmi·sol ˆâ·kiste, ˆâtre, `do gřom. ˆdâŋgom. o `gek_kti, ˆâ·kü i·a ˆâ·kü čama ste ŋe, ˆâmki ´sindâni_kunta. ˆimo viri, ˆinea, ˆqozi sâip, ˆvilâioš, ˆâmna nom âi. ˆkunař_kâřa bo ča sâip, `lâ·kâ `nire `štrak i·a ˆkunâř `čama, `ketta imo sta i·a ˆzilâ_âsa bo, o ˆi·e düŋe ča, `e·uře ča ˆkunař nom_temmiš. o, ´sindâni_kâřa bo ča `čare `ča u tianta. [K] What am I saying; I just said it's Pashto. Down to there --you know this Sindani? -- he told you the extent of that Sindani. Look what he told you, OK? He told you, for example, Nishagom. For example, Bârgom. And then, for example, inward, Mountain Community. Dângom. Just like that, for that [area] from there on upwards they say sindani. This one, Mr. Judge, told you what these names are in our language. If you say “Kunar,” then like from down there at that [town of] Kunar on upwards, whatever is in our province, we call that whole area “Kunar.” If you say “Sindani,” it [refers to] what remains in the upper area.
[GU] âmki `strak `dre, ˆâmnoa˜, râvoč kâřa·sa, `dre. `okuṇi ˆâ·kü sta ina ˆâs·mor ulus·uoli, ˆina bi to ste pâama âmki `küř, `küře˜ ˆâmče˜, ˆâs·mor ulus·uoli to ste, ´sindâni, âsamiš kunta. [GU] Now later they created their own custom. The Afghâns from there, ever since there has been the Âsmâr District and they've been from their own separate district of Âsmâr, they've said that they are Sindani.
[RS] ˆâ·ki, âska ´sindâni poar manšoa˜ sta `kâča ˆtårix źâňala bunta_â? â·ki. [RS] Do you think any of the Sindani people know their own history there?
[K] ˆpurduk mi purduk `kâča ˆṣâŋe sta `kâa `âćti ǰena sta, `kuiu ˆčâlpanoš bi sta `kâa ˆźâňanâlla bo ˆźâňalâ? `kuiu ste `oasa=sta `kâa ˆlâtri `kâča di ˆâmki_âsala bo. [K] Certain old men from the old days who came and settled or who were run out from somewhere might be knowing something about where they came from and why and who they might be.
[GU] âmki `okuṇi â? [GU] You mean those Afghâns?
[RS] `okuṇi bulâ, âmki ˆṣâŋe ˆâ·ki ˆbârgom bulâ, ˆâmki `kâča ǰenastaâ? [RS] Afghâns, for example, or those there in Bârgom. Who lived there?
[GU] ˆâmki, ˆâmki to˜_to `egek, ˆimo mânša âi. ˆṣâŋe. ˆâ·ki poar ǰenastâa_kunta `nâ˜i â? ˆdâŋgom, `do gřom,ˆ imo mânšoa˜ sta viri_âsa. [GU] In those places there were our people. In the old times. They say they used to live down there, right? In Dângom, do gřom, in our peoples' language.
[RS] `kom sta_âsi_â? nâ˜i. `vâre nuristoni sta. [RS] Was it the Kom's, or other Nuristânis'?
[K] `kom sta. `kom sta. `kom sta. [K] The Koms'. The Koms'. The Koms'.
[GU] ˆimo, `kom sta. `kom sta. `gek_kti `âćti ˆgiǰa_kâřa·sa. [GU] It was our Koms' [place]. It's said that they came that way.
[K] `niň, ˆsâma sâma gula˜ `štrak di ˆimo sta nom_to tenta ča. `štrak ˆimo de, ˆâ·kü ˆi·a, ´ǰâlolâ_âsa `nâ˜i â? `uruku, ina, ˆbâčak bârmuk sâlom din, ˆbâčak bârmuk sta. ˆbâčak bârmuk sta, âska `pšola, ˆbârmuk bânḍâ kti `strak di nom_tenta âmki. `toa˜, ˆâmkioa˜, ˆâmkioa˜ mi `ṭi˜č âi. ˆâmkioa˜ `ṭi˜č âi. [K] Downriver there are still some valleys that they still call with our names. Now, there's Jalâla there, right? A little way up from there -- [you know] Salâm Din, son of Bârmuk, son of Bâčik -- for the stable of [his father] Bârmuk, son of Bâčik, they now call it bârmuk bânḍâ [‘Bâmuk's Stable,’ in Pashto]. Therefore, they are aware of it. They're aware of it.
[GU] `nire ˆâ·ki čama de ˆâni `kombřom âćti `ü_přâsina to ˆâni ˆgřâmkaṭa `ü teti ˆâni bi to ˆânü ste `niň, `ṣor_âsa imo mânšoa˜ sta. `nire ´ǰâlolâ čama, ina `gul, ˆimo mânšoa˜ sta `ṣor_âsa. ˆṣâřoa˜ ˆźâ˜vor `ni gâati ˆâ·ki gâala_âi. ˆâ·kiste ˆvâsdor `ča_âveti ˆpâso˜ gâala_âi. ˆźâ˜vor i·a `nire ´ǰâlolâ vik `ṣor_âsa, ˆimo mânšoa˜ sta. `peň di `veň di. `gek_kti čaâ˜, `dre âmna ˆguǰara_oastâa ˆâ·küste `dre âmna ˆkâča `okuṇi oastâa, ˆkâča âmna ˆgita sta, ˆmânša âćti ˆâ·ki niň i·a `gul to ǰeti, ˆâ·küste, ´âbodi kti ˆkâča `ptul_kti ˆkâča `kâa kti `gek gek_kti `gek gek, `dre âska, âmki ˆimo mânšoa˜_to ste, âmki `gul to ˆâmki, `veň peň bistâa. `gek kum âmki, `okuṇi ˆbiliuk âi de ˆimo `čaruk kum `čaruk kum `čaruk kum gâati `strak ˆimo ˆâni ˆâtam u tea·samiš, `ča pačuřuk. `berkuṭ di, pâřistâi. `berkuṭ u, ˆimoa, `ča u teati, `püň gul to `veň peň bistâa, ina `ča sa ˆâmkioa˜ meṣ `vik vik buna ˆguǰaroa˜ meṣ_â·ki, `tua_âsia˜ â·ki, `kombřom_âsaš ˆâmki viri `sustuk `tua `ṭi˜č âi. ˆi·a de `di, `kâa, ˆviri vâllâ sta ˆzârur nâ âi. [GU] Ever since our people came upwards from down there and settled in Kom Community and put down the timbers of their houses and have been here, from here on downriver has been our peoples' winter quarters. Down there, from Jalâla on upwards, this valley has been our peoples' winter quarters. In the winter they would take their flocks down there and then in the summer they would bring them up to the mountain pastures. In the winter when they would take their livestock downriver, they would take them there. Then in the summer they would being them up and take them to the mountain pastures. In the winter down to Jalâla is our peoples' winter quarters, on both sides of the river. Later these Gujurs came, and then later some or these Afghâns arrived; some people like that came, and they settled down there in that country, and they cultivated it and made fields and so on and so forth. Later on, from our people -- they became scattered across those valleys. Because the Afghâns are so many, they've kept coming up and coming up and coming up, and now they've boxed us in, in the uppermost area. They've even arrived at Ber Tower. Since they've boxed us in up around Ber Tower, they've taken over the country over and beyond. For the past several years there has been mutual hostility between us and them and the Gujars there. While you were there, when you were in Kom Community, you were aware of all that was going on. It's not necessary to talk again about that.