The Expansion of the Kom into Pitigal

When the Kom arrived in their present location, they found the region inhabited by Jâshi, Binio, and Kshto peoples. The Jâshi held the site of present-day `kombřom (‘Kom Community,’ otherwise known as “Kâmdesh”), located on the ridge of a mountain spur high above the confluence of the Lanḍai Sin and Nichingal Rivers. The Jâshi are considered to be the autochthons of the region. The Binio, originally refugees from Büni in the upper Pech Valley, held the uplands to the east of the Jâshi. The Kshto, refugees from Küst near Büni, held the lowlands along the aforementioned rivers, including the current sites of the villages of `kṣtořm, ˆâguru, ˆürmür, `merořm, and ˆkâmu.

Over the years the Kom gradually replaced these groups as masters of the region. The Binio lost their mountain pastures to the Kom, effectively reducing them to client status. The Jâshi fled down the Landai Sin into the side valleys of pitigal and uštroṭ, where they subsequently underwent the same fate as the Binios. The following account details the process of expropriation in Pitigal. The Kshto fought nine losing wars in which the Kom gained all their lowland possessions except the area around present-day Kṣtořm.

This account of the Kom expansion into Pitigal [‘Piti Valley’] was related to me in 1973 by Fazl Karim and Qâzi Ghulâmullâh in Kâbul. Both men were residents of Pitigal.




pitikal sta tårix
related by
Fazl Karim
and
Qâzi Ghulâmullâh
to
Richard F. Strand
 
History of Piti Valley
related by
Fazl Karim
and
Qâzi Ghulâmullâh
to
Richard F. Strand
 
[RS] ina ˆpitikal sta tårix_âsa `nâ˜i â? ko ˆvilâ, `kâa kti vilânša bo. ˆnüštruk ste `kâa ˆźâňanša bo. [RS] You know the history of Piti Valley? Well, tell me whatever you know, from the very first.
[FK] `ou˜. ˆnüštruk ste. âska `o˜ vâllânâsim ˆâska mi vâllânâllam ča. `ou˜. ˆnüštruk de âska `pitikal ˆâni ste `koma˜ `nâ âta go u˜ `nâ˜i â? `pitikal `nâ go˜. [FK] O.K., from the very first. What I was telling you before, that's just what I‘ll be telling you now. Yes. From the very first before the Kom went from here into Piti Valley, right? Before they went to Piti Valley.
ˆârâňi sta ˆguṭkec nom vo mânša ... A man named Rich Woman's Gutkech ...
[RS] `kâča â? [RS] Who?
[FK] ˆârâňi sta ˆguṭkeč. `noňas ˆârâňi nom_âsa. ˆârâ, dâra `gek_kti mi `nâ[?]_kunta ča. [FK] Rich Woman's Gutkech. His mother was named ˆârâňi [‘Rich Woman’]. That's how Rich Woman's Boys came to be called such, right?
[RS] ˆârâ dâra `gek_kti kunta? [RS] That's why Rich Woman's Boys are called that, huh?
[FK] `ou˜, `gek_kti kunta ou˜. [FK] Yes, that's why they call them that.
[RS] `noňas poar sta? [RS] From the mother's side?
[FK] `ou˜. ˆâsko sta `noňas ˆârâa_âsa. ˆimo ŋe, o `gek_kti ˆârâa dâra_kunta. [FK] Yes. His mother was rich. That's why they call us Rich Woman's Boys.
[RS] `mâtâ kša. ˆi·a kâa kti buna? [RS] Wait a minute. How does that happen?
[GU] `noňas `nom vâa billi, ˆkâṭavâa ǰukuř billi, ˆârâňi sta ˆguṭkeč di_âska `noňas pânom vo ... [GU] His mother must have had a big name. She must have been a powerful woman. Rich Woman's Gutkech was how he was known, by his mother ...
[FK] `noňas to `pe teti `nom_âsa, âska. ˆârâňi sta ˆguṭkeč kunta âske ŋe. [FK] His name was attached to his mother's. They called him Rich Woman's Gutkech.
ˆâska, ˆâni `mümoč to `ǰena to˜_to, `ǰeṣ mi ǰeṣa˜ meṣ, ˆâskea ˆgiǰa_kâřastâi, `kuř `poňa_âša·sa, "`o˜ć ˆâtre ˆǰâša gurbek to ste, `go vř☠ŋâti `âćlom_kti. While he was sitting here with some men of the Crest, with some leaders, he said to them, with his one leg crossed over the other, “I'm going to go in there [to Piti Valley], rip off a cow from Gurbek the Jâshi, and come back.”
[RS] ˆǰâša gurbek to ste. [RS] From Gurbek the Jâshi.
[FK] ˆǰâša âšta, `nâ˜i â? `pitikal `suanti ˆǰâša âi. [FK] They were Jâshi, right? In Piti Valley there were all Jâshi then.
[GU] ˆǰâša gurbek `pitikal `leamoč_âsa. [GU] Gurbek the Jâshi was a warrior in Piti Valley then.
[FK] ˆâska `leamoč_âsa. [FK] He was a warrior.
ˆâ·kiste, âska `ǰâša gurbek sta, ˆâ·ki âmki ˆmânšoa˜ pâmüc, `leamoča˜ pâmüč, e `leavâllâla_âsa, âni. ˆâskea giǰa_kâřa·sa, "âska ˆǰâša gurbek de `nu pâc̣an kâřa·sa, ˆbila˜ mer meṣ. ˆâske to `tü `vř☠ŋâti `âća˜ `nâ bânša. `e čuřa `tua ˆnâšana [nâšalo], `nâ i, kti giǰa_kâřa·sa. So then, among those men, those warriors [with whom Gutkech was sitting] there was a friend of Gurbek the Jâshi here [in Kom Community]. He said, “Gurbek the Jâshi has fought nine wars with the king of Chitral. You can't rip anything off from him. He'll trash you. Don't go.”
ˆâskea ˆgiǰa_kâřa·stâi "`o˜ć, `kâa `bulo bo `bulo, `ienam, ˆâske to `vř☠ŋâti `âćlom. The other said, “Whatever happens to me will happen. I'm going. I'll rip him off and come back.”
ˆgâňoa˜ giti `gu·sa, âska. ˆâni ste `giti `pitikal gu·sa. `pitikal giti ˆâ·kiste˜ ˆâpřara=noř nom vo e `to˜_âsa, â·ki. âska ˆǰâša gurbek sta. ˆâ·ki `ǰena to˜_to ˆâska ˆpâři·sa. `pitikal [?] ˆvâsi·sa, â·kiste ˆpâřučkol âska `gurbek to ˆgiǰa_kâřa·sa "`go ˆbâram dâ, `o˜ `ienam. ˆâskea giǰa_kâřa·sa He swore an oath to it and went. He went from here to Piti Valley. He went to Piti Valley, and there's a place there called Unreachable Stream, that was Gurbek the Jâshi's place. He arrived while [Gurbek] was sitting there. He spent the night in Piti Valley, and then in the morning he said to Gurbek, “Bring a cow out of the stable; I'm going.”
"`go `kâa ˆrâqâm? di gâanša. `kâa kti `gâanša? goa˜. “Cow? What kind of cow are you taking? How are you taking cows?”
"ina `goa ˆbâram dâ `ne? `o˜ `gâanam. `ina `kâa kti di gâalom. “Just bring out the cow, right? I'm taking it. However I take it.”
"ˆkoṭa˜ `gâanša_kâřa·sa. “Are you taking it by force?” he said.
"`ou˜. "Yes!”
"e ˆkoṭa˜ gâanša bo de, `go ˆâ·kü âi, `tü ˆâ·kü_â·ša `gâi? ne. “Well, if you're taking it by force, there are the cows, there you are, so take it, why don't you.”
ˆâ·kiste ˆâskea ˆâmu źâňi `ü_giti `pšol `du_âta kti `go ˆbâram dâti ˆbâřastâi. `ecok to, `gu to, ˆâkiste `pṭipâara suara âska `trevoč ŋâti ˆliṣṭi·sa. gurbek. ˆgurbeka giti âska ˆârâňi sta guṭkeč to `ptri_sâni·sa. `ptri_sânti, ˆâskea `trevoč ˆpâňu kâři to ča, ˆsuarea `ṭi˜č bi·sa `i˜a `viana kti. `ṣea `gek_kti `vâa kṣea to ˆânü ˆkârmaṭi viati ˆâtam_sâneati `peṭti âṭlea·sa. ˆâ·kiste `ü biti ˆkârmaṭia ŋâti ˆâska ˆâni `ču˜ oaźti oa·sa. `suara `goa˜_ˆâ·kü nâčeati. So he went by himself down to the stable, opened the door, drove the cows out, and took them away. After he had gone a little bit, Gurbek took his sword and attacked him from behind. Gurbek went and caught up to Rich Woman's Gutkech. He caught up, and when he raised his sword, the other one became aware that he was going to be struck. As he ducked his head his ear was hit right here and sliced off right down to the base. He reached down and grabbed his ear and hustled back out and up to Kom Community, leaving the cows behind there.
`âćti ˆâni `kombřom oasi to, ˆâ·kiste ˆâmni [?] âska, ˆkârmaṭi düŋe, `tre vići `gâṣ mâti, `iâš teti, ˆâ·kiste ˆâskea `tre vos `u·p☠giṭti, ˆpâšaṇto˜ teti ča, ˆâ·kiste ... When he got back to Kom Community they killed sixty billy-goats and had a huge funeral feast for that ear. They tied it up on a bier for three days at the cemetery, and then ...
[RS] âska ˆkârmaṭi â? [RS] The ear?
[FK] `ou˜. ˆpâlot ǰenastâi. ˆâkiste ˆâni, `kombřom mânšoa˜ sta ˆimo sta `put `pitikal `pâido bi. [FK] Yes. Then they sat to discuss the terms of peace. Then the people of Kom Community here, our people, found a path into Piti Valley.
"`tü [?] `goa˜ přela bi bo, `go `nâ vřâkâ. `gul vřâkâmmo kti, âmki `bor âšala bi bo. ˆkârmaṭi sta `bor `gul vřâkâmmo kti ča, âmna `koma˜ špâio. ˆimo sta `put buli â·ki. “If he's going to give you cows [in compensation for the ear], don't take cows. Let's get land, when they fix a blood price. We should get land for the blood price of the ear,” the Kom agreed. “We should get an inroad there.”
ˆâ·kiste čaâ˜, `lot, ˆpâlot ǰenâ_â? `pâlot ǰeti ˆâ·kiste ˆâmkioa˜ ... So they sat down for peace talks, right? They sat down and then ...
[RS] `kâa? [RS] What?
[FK] ˆpâlot ǰenâ. `lot kâroanta, `nâ˜i â? mânša. ˆpâlot ǰenâ. ˆpâlot ǰeti ˆmânšoa˜ `lot kâreati, ˆâ·ki `de to˜ niṣo `nima, `poato přukom `čama, e `gul_âsa, ˆâska ˆbâbor âši. `bor âšti, âska ˆârâňi sta guṭkeč to `tre vići `go pto. âska ˆǰâša gurbek meṣ, `lot_kti, ˆâ·kiste âska ˆârâňi sta guṭkeč ˆâ·ki `pitikal âta go. o ˆi·a `gita sta viri_âsa. [FK] They sat down for peace talks. They're making peace, right? The men. They sat down for peace talks. They sat down and made peace between the men, and fixed the blood compensation at a valley there from Divine Place Farms on down to Poato Scaffold. When the compensation was fixed Rich Woman's Gutkech was given sixty cows. After he made peace with Gurbek the Jâshi, Rich Woman's Gutkech went into Piti Valley there. That's the way it was.
[RS] ˆâ·kiste `dre `kâa kti âmki suara `dümü dâra bulâ, âmki `vâre ˆgâřak dâra bulâ, ˆâmki kâa kti gustâi, â·ki. [RS] Then later how did Dümü's Boys and Gârak's Boys, for example, how did they go in.
[FK] ˆâ·kiste˜ ˆčâčoka˜ âska `koma˜ sta, âska `gul bi, `nâ˜i â? ˆâ·ki e ˆmânše sta bi ča. ˆâkiste˜ `kâča `leavâllâla pâido kti, ˆâkiste˜ `kâča `ŋâti, `kâča o `gek kum ˆčâčoka˜ čâčoka˜ `šaṭe˜ bâ mânša. ˆâ·kiste ˆǰâša `püs bum guâ, `kom ˆuto bum guâ. ˆǰâša `püs bum guâ; `kom ˆuto bum guâ. `gek bum giti, ˆǰâša `kâča de ˆmâřâ, `kâča ˆmukiâ, `koma˜ sta `koṭ bo. `kom `šaṭe˜ bâ. âa, `strak ˆâ·ki `što moč `puč moč ˆǰâša ˆpâta bistâi, ˆsuara ǰâša `püs bistâi. `gul `koma˜_to ˆpâta bi·sa. `vâre? [FK] Then little by little, the valley became the Koms', right? It started off as one man's; then he found some friends, and then somebody bought some land, and so on and so forth, and little by little the people became many. And then the Jâshi got fewer and the Kom got more and more. Then the Jâshi kept disappearing, and the Kom kept getting greater. The Jâshi kept disappearing, and the Kom kept getting greater. It kept going like that; some of the Jâshi died off, and some of them fled, and the Kom gained power. The Kom became many. Now there are only four or five Jâshi remaining; the rest of the Jâshi have disappeared. The valley remained for the Kom, what else?
[RS] ˆâ·ki âska ˆkâtoa˜ sta `so˜ `kua vř☠ŋuti·sa. [RS] So then that mountain pasture of the Kâta, who ripped that off?
[FK] ˆkâtoa˜ sta so˜ `koma˜. [FK] The Kâtas' mountain pasture? The Kom.
[RS] ˆâmkioa˜ sta so˜ `kor_âsa? âska, ˆmâǰom poar ˆâmkioa˜ sta_âsi â? [RS] Where was their mountain pasture? Was it in Maǰom?
[FK] âa, `čare, ˆtrâmšakal gul ˆkâta ˆpâso˜_âvenâsi. ˆtrâmšakal gul to. `čare. e˜, ˆdurik niṣo `čama di ˆkâta ˆpâso˜_âvenâsi. e˜, ˆkâtoa˜ sta_âsi, ne? `â·sal ˆkâtoa˜ pâküř_âsi, âska `so˜. ˆâ·kiste `koma˜ `dre ˆâni ste ˆmânša ˆâta giti, `buaṭa bi to, ˆâni `koma˜ `ṣuč_kti `ṣuč_kti, ˆâmkioa˜ meṣ `ṣuč_kti `vř☠ŋâti `gâati `ča pâčuřuka, e ˆâ·ki ˆpâpuṣto˜_šut kunta, `čare, ˆâ·ki čaruka, e ˆšâlto˜ ˆkâtoa˜ sta_âsa. ˆtrâmšakal ˆbâkul ˆâta pâčuřuka, `ea šâlto˜ âi? `dü âi bo. ˆâ·ki ˆkâtoa˜ sta âi. `suara `sunti ˆkoma˜ vř☠ŋutastâi. [FK] Up there in Twilight Valley was were the Kâta used to bring their flocks to mountain pasture. To Twilight Valley. Up there. Also from Durik Farm on up was where the Kâta were bringing their flocks to mountain pastures. It was the Kâtas'. Basically it was under the Kâtas' domain, that mountain pasture. Then later when the Kom had gone in from here and become numerous, the Kom from here fought and fought with them, ripped it off, and took it all the way up to the end. At the very end there's a place they call Boondock Ground, a little way up from there is a stable area of the Kâta. At the very end of Twilight Valley there are one or maybe two stable areas. They belong to the Kâta. All the rest the Kom ripped off.
[GU] ˆpâCan_kti `vř☠ŋutastâa, leamoca˜. [GU] The warriors made war and ripped them off.
[FK] ˆâ·ki `di âska e `di âska ˆârâňi sta guṭkeč sta ˆnâvos_âsa_â? de. ˆpâliuk muri_kunta, `ea ˆâska_âsa; `ea suara `merak čânlü `dü mânšoa˜ ˆâ·ki `ṣuč kâřa·sa, evor. `ṣuč ˆimo to ˆmâˁlum_âsa. âmki `düa˜ mi kâřa·sa. `lea vâllâla âi, `oadü. [FK] There was a grandson of Rich Woman's Gutkech there, too, right? They call him Pâliuk's Muri. He was one, and there was another, Merak's Chânlü. One time the two men made war there. We know about the war. Just those two did it. They were both friends.
[RS] `kua `totbřo_âsi? [RS] Whose agnates were they?
[FK] `ea `merak dâra -- `merak dâra sta -- `merak čânlü ˆimo sta `voa buna; `ea ˆârâa dâra.. [FK] One was Merak's Boy -- Merak's Boy's -- Merak's Chânlü is our ancestor. One was Rich Woman's Boy ...
[GU] `ea ˆâmnoa˜ voa_âsa, âska. ˆpâliuk muri. [GU] One is their [Fazl Karim's agnates'] forefather, that Pâliuk's Muri.
[FK] ˆâ·ki ˆâskea âmna ˆmânšoa˜ sta ˆviri to ˆâ·kiste `strak vik ina ˆviri ˆmâšhur_âsa, ne? ˆâska `ea pânoř ˆâṣṭić ˆdâřvo ǰâňistâi kti. ˆâṣṭić ˆdâřvo nom vo mânša. [FK] So even up to now there's a story about them that's famous, right? At one single stream they killed eighteen Dâřvos. Eighteen men named Dâřvo.
[GU] `ea noř to ˆdâřvo -- ˆkâta -- ˆdâřvo nom ˆkâta ˆbiliuk bunta, `nâ˜i â? ˆâṣṭić moč `ea pânoř mi, ˆdâřvo ǰâňistâa_kunta, ˆdâřvo nom vo mânša. ˆâṣṭić, ˆdâřvo nom vo mânša. `suara de ˆbiliuk mânša ǰâňistâa, `nâ˜i â? `čuk ˆǰâňi·sala bo. `gi☠ˆdâřvo nom vo mânša, `e pânoř ćoa; ˆâṣṭić moč ǰâňistâa. [GU] At one stream -- the Kâta have a lot of men named Dâřvo, right? Eighteen men named Dâřvo were killed at just one stream, they say. Eighteen men named Dâřvo. A lot of other men were killed, right, however many might have been killed. But just men named Dâřvo, at one stream, eighteen were killed.
ina ˆpâliuk muri ŋe `lâalu_âsa `nâ˜i â? There's a song for this Pâliuk's Muri:
"`bekću ˆâro pâliuk muri o.
`šur e tua ˆsaňi meṣ,
ˆkâmšur e tua ˆkâmsaňi meṣ.
Look outward, O Rich Pâliuk's Muri.
Hero with your soldiers,
Kom Hero with your Kom soldiers.
`suara `čaň di ˆleamoč ina ˆmâro_kârlo ǰâno_âsa. ˆâske ŋe di `lâalu_âsa. And up the valley [in Kâta Country] there's Kârlo's Jâno, also a warrior. There's a song for him, too:
"`bekću ˆmâro ˆkârlo ˆǰâno.
`šur e tua ˆsaňi meṣ,
ˆkât·šur e tua ˆkât·saňi meṣ.
Look outward, Mâro's Kârlo's Jâno.
Hero with your soldiers,
Kâta Hero with your Kâta soldiers.
[RS] ˆkât·saňi meṣ `kunta_â? [RS] They say, “with kât·saňi,” huh? [checking the phonetics]
[GU] `ou˜. ˆkât·šur e tua ˆkât·saňi meṣ. âmki `leamoča˜ ŋe `lâalu âi. [GU] Yes. “Kâta Hero with your Kâta soldiers.” These are songs for those warriors.
[FK] âmki ˆâṭi `strak di_âsi â·ki, mânšoa˜ sta. `evor, ˆkârü âćti ča, ˆpâküř tâřâ. ˆpâktavoa˜ ˆâṭi. ˆmânšoa˜ sta ˆâṭi `ṣuč to ǰâňi stoa˜. [FK] Those men's bones were there even now. Once a flood came and dumped the bones in a cave. The bones of the men who were killed in the war.