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Languages of the Hindu-Kush

Indo-Aryan Branch of the
Indo-Iranian Languages
  • Pashai [1]
    • Western (pašaî proper)
      • Panjshir–Pachaghân
      • Alishang–Uzbin
      • Upper Alingar (?)
      • Tagâw ("South-Western")
    • Eastern
      • Laghmân Group
        • kurmaitʹo ("Laghmâni")
        • "damenči"
        • sʹûm dialect
      • Kunar Group ("šʹâṛi", a Pashto term for Pashaî speakers)
        • degânʹo
        • Upper Darra-i Nur
        • Lower Darra-i Nur
      • Pech Group ("North-Eastern")
        • Čalâsi–Kuṛangali
        • čûganî
  • Pech Group
    • Gṛangali (gʹõgali)–Nungalâmi [2]
    • Šumašti [3]
    • gawâr-bâti [4]
  • (Pech-Kunar Group ?)
    • Kaṭâr-Qalâi [5] (?)
  • Chitral Group
    • Kalaṣa [6]
      • kalʹaṣa-mandr
      • kalʹaṣa-mun(d)
    • khow`ar [7]
  • Tirâhi [8] (not on map)
  • Kohistâni Group
    • Western
      • dåmia-båṣa [9] (?)
      • Dir Kohistâni–garvʹi ("Bashkarik") [10]
    • Eastern
      • Indus Kohistâni ("Maiyâ˜") [11]
        • Duber–Kandia
        • Paṭan–kanyawâli
      • Gowro [12]
      • Čilisso [13]
      • bhaṭʹe-sa zʹib [14]
      • Torwâli [15]
  • Shina (ṣinâʹ) [16]
    • Čilâsi
      • Dispersed dialects
      • kohistyo˜
      • Eastern dialects
        • Astori, Drasi, etc.
    • Gilgiti
      • Brokskat
  • Kashmiri [17] (not on map)
    • Kashtawâṛi
    • Poguli

  • [Remaining Indo-Aryan groups are located to the east and south. Included in these are Hindko and Guǰuri, which appear on the map]
Nuristâni Branch of the
Indo-Iranian Languages
  • Southern (Kalaṣa) Group
    • Âṣkuňu [1]
      • âṣkuňu-vêri
        • Bâźâigal
        • Kolatâ˜
        • Titin
      • saňu-vîri
      • grâmsaňâ-vîri
    • kalaṣa-alâ ("Waigali") [2]
      • varǰan-alâ
        • vä-alâ (vai-alâ)
        • ameš-alâ
        • ǰâmameš-alâ
        • ẓö˜č-alâ
      • čima-nišei-alâ
    • Tregâmi [3]
  • Northern Group
    • kâmk'ata-vari [4]
    • vâsi-vari [5]
      • uṣʹüt-varʹe
      • üšʹüt-üćʹü-zumʹu-vari
      • ṣupʹu-varʹi

Iranian Branch of the
Indo-Iranian Languages
  • Eastern Group
    • Northern Group
      • Ossetian [1] (not on map)
      • Yaghnobi [2] (not on map)
    • Southern Group
      • Pashto (paxtʹo) [3]
      • Munǰi–Yidǧa (idǧa) [4]
      • Iškâšmi–Sangleči [5]
      • Wâxi (xik) [6]
      • Pamir Group
        • Šuǧni Group [7]
          • Šuǧni–Baǰuvi
          • Rošâni–Xufi
          • Bartangi–Orošori–Sarikoli
        • Yazǧulâmi [8]
  • Western Group
    • Northern Group
      • Parači [9]
      • Ormuṛi [10] (not on map)
      • [Kurdish, Baloči, and other languages to the west]
    • Southern Group
      • Persian (fârsi) [11]
      • [other languages to the west]

Unaffiliated Language
  • burʹušaski


Language and dialect names are in boldface; indigenous names are italicized; geographically based dialect names are in normal font. Within each phylogenetic branch languages (as opposed to dialects) are numbered for referential clarity. Colors are keyed to those on the map. A question mark (?) indicates that the classification of the preceding item is not thoroughly established.