The Sound System of nišei-alâ

Table 1.  The Phonemes of nišei-alâ.
Articulatory Location
Lip Tongue Nasal Pharynx Larynx Glottis
  tip up [apical] tip down [laminal/dorsal]        
front back front back (retracted)
Stricture Type apico-
dental
apico-
alveolar
prognathized
lamino-
dental
lamino-
alveolar
dorso-
velar
dorso-
postvelar
Con-
son-
ants
Ob-
stru-
ents
Affricates   ć č    
    ǰ [vcd]
Stops p t     k (q) (ˀ)
b d g   [vcd]
Spirants (f)   s š (x) () (h)
v z   (ǧ) (ˁ) [vcd]
Sono-
rants
Flaps upward     r          
forward
Lateral l  
Nasal
Approximant
  ň
Nasal Stops m n ŋ [nas]
Vowels Close u   i     ˜
ü   [frn]
Mid o   e a
ö   [frn]  
Open   ä â
Pitch Accent   ʹ  
Terminal
Contours
full drop   .
rising   ?

Phonemic Inventory and Transcription. The symbols in Table 1 stand for the distinctive speech sounds of nišei-alâ.


Symbols enclosed in parentheses represent foreign sounds not fully integrated into the traditional Nišei-alâ sound system. The symbols [vcd] and [nas] represent coproduced components of the sounds listed to their left in the row.


Notable phonetic points:

[Under Construction]