Topics in Vâsi Ethnography

by

Zamân Xân

recorded and translated by

Richard F. Strand


1. Keepers of the Former Gods

[ZX] `ea di, `so_âsa_kunta. `de. `so˜. âska `so de, ˆimro pütras_âsa_kunta. [ZX] They say one is So. A god. So˜. They say that this So is Imro's son.
[RS] `so˜. [RS] So˜.
[ZX] `so. âska `so˜, ˆimro pütras_âsa_kunta. ˆâskea de sâip `eṭa vor bi bo, `c̣o `kula bunta mma. `so. `suara âmna ˆpâmüč pâmüč `eṭa eṭa sâip_â Xnonototo `nâ_âi â? `eṭa eṭa ˆpâido kula bi, ˆâmna `vâama lâtri âi. âmna `oala=lâtri de `tua, ˆnuštruk, XXX `nâi â? [ZX] So. They say that this So˜ is Imro's son. On occasion they would call him. So. Then among them there are some XXX, you know, sir. A few would be found; they're lesser things. The big ones you recorded earlier, didn't you.
[RS] `mâtâ kša. ˆina latri de `nâ vânmi·sa. xo, `e pilŋio˜ `di kša. ˆâvâl de ˆimro_âsa, `nâi â? [RS] Wait. This thing didn't pick it up. Well, say it again. First there's Imro, right?
[ZX] `ou˜, ˆâvâl de ˆimro_âsa. [ZX] Yes. First there's Imro.
[RS] âske sta `to˜ de `kor_âsi. [RS] Where was his place?
[ZX] ˆimro to˜ sâip_â; ina `eṭa eṭa ǰoi to `âšta. ˆâni ˆimro ˆimo to sâip ˆimo bâkula `strak ˆimro, ˆimro vâňi, `o˜ć_âsam sâip. `i˜ sta âmo to ˆimro_âsa sâibâ. `but, ˆimro but `i˜ to_âsa sâip. ˆâskea `kâča ˆdâvo kti ˆimro pâmo âćla bi bo, ˆâṣe âventa. `go âventa. `hâr ṣâřa, ˆimro sâip_â, ina ˆbiliuk `oal, ´âdâulât dâvo di kti, hâr lâtri, ˆxâirât kunta sâip. e lâtri špâti ni lâtri âske to_âsa nâ_kunta; imro to kâa lâtri_âsa bo de âske to pe_âšti, go_kunta sâip. go_âsa bo di, gâṣ_âsa bo di, mulo to âventa. `but ˆimro sta i˜mmo, âskea kâa âmo_âsi, i˜ sta; m’ün âmo_kunta, imro âmo. [ZX] Imro's places exist around in a few areas. Here in our country Imro -- Imro's overseer is me. Imro is in my house. Imro's idol is by me. If anyone would be coming to Imro's house to make a prayer, they would bring a bull. They would bring a cow. Every head of livestock -- Imro -- they would make a big important prayer, for whatever, and would put on a feast. They would agree on something, but they wouldn't say, "This is for him." Whatever would be for Imro they would offer it to him; they would say it would be a cow. Whether it would be a cow or a billy goat, they would bring it to the priest. The idol of Imro would be in my house. What kind of house is mine, for him? They call it the mün house, Imro's house.
[RS] šo viri to. [RS] In your language.
[ZX] ou˜ imo viri to_âsa. m’ünd kunta münd âmo. m’ünd v’ârak. imo viri imo viri âni viri. m’ünd v’ârak. [ZX] Yes, it's in our language. They say "the m’ünd house." m’ünd v’ârak. In our language; in the language here. m’ünd v’ârak.
[RS] m’ünd v’ârak âni mi_âsa â? strak. [RS] Is there a m’ünd v’ârak here even now?
[ZX] ou˜, âni m’ün vârak, âska v’ârak de sua˜ ŋe, vâr’ak ke˜ de sua˜ ŋe de. vâr’ak kunda; mâgâr âska imro sta vâr’ak nâ kunta. am’al kunta, am’al. âskea vâr’ak nâ_kunta, am’al kunta. imro sta vâr’ak, am’al kunta, sâip. ou˜. [ZX] Yes, here the m’ün v’ârak -- that v’ârak is used for all [houses]. They say v’ârak. But for that one of Imro they don't say v’ârak, they say am’al. am’al. They don't say v’ârak for that one; they say am’al. For Imro's house, they say am’al, sir. Yes.
[RS] â·kiste âske sta but â·ki bunâsi â? [RS] Then was his idol there?
[ZX] â·ki but â·ki buna, ou˜, imro but âskea, am’al nâ_âsa â? imro am’al to but â·ki buna. ou˜. [ZX] The idol resides there, yes. Imro's idol -- you know this am’al? The idol resides there in Imro's am’al. Yes.
[RS] â·kiste kâa bunâsi. [RS] Then what would happen?
[ZX] â·kiste giti o˜ de sâip â, imro tul âi. imro tul âi; âmna imro tul u; bâra giti mânša kudüm 'ti; imro tul u; oa pâňeati, imro tula˜ sta hâ·sil, âska kâṭi, kâmřeati, âveč imoa přenta. imoa přenta imo iulâsamiš. gudânâ skol buna, nâi â? âska hârom lâtri_âsa, imro lâtri_âsa kti ča˜, xâirât nâ_kula bunta. imoa âveti imo put ptamiš bo; âmni pok kti mut to e dånâ gekti pâmo gu bo imo hâlol bummiš imro lâtri_âsa kti. ina pok kti enta sâip_â. âmnoa lesta kti pok kti imo to e dånâ XXX kti. pok biti enta, XXX to. âmna imoa přenta sâip_â. tüsmüs nâ_âsa â? kâmřea bo âmna kâi bo ü psana nâi â? üs. âskea âmkio gâanta. suara pul imoa přenta sâip. ou˜, ṣâŋe čor i·a_âsa sâip. ou˜, imro ptul to lâtri imoa přenta sâip_â. [ZX] Then I would go -- there are Imro's fields. There are Imro's fields. Among these fields of Imro people would go out and work, in Imro's fields, they would irrigate; they would thresh the produce of Imro's fields, the grain, and give us our needs. They would give it to us and we would consume it. The yield would be great, right? It's a forbidden thing, because it's Imro's, so they wouldn't offer it up for feasting. They would bring it to us, and when they would give us the way [?], they would clean them and put them in a sack, and when it would go to the house, we would be purified because it's Imro's thing. They would clean it and go. They would clean it really well and come to us with one. They would clean up and go. They would give them to us. And you know the chaff? What was left over after the stalks were threshed? They would take that. But the grain they would give to us. Yes, that's the old-time custom. The things from Imro's fields they would give to us.
suara i·a_âsa če˜, âska imro ptul to e mânša u teati, xâirât kuna. âska oal xâirât_âsa. xârča mâ·srâf biliuk_âsa nâi â? xârča mâ·srâf to âske XXX ti ṣâřa âveti kula bi bo, eǰåsâ vřâkâna, imo to. ina xâirât tâuqât i˜ to_âsa. kunam â de nâi â? kuna. kša kummiš, imo. kša kâřa bo âska, xâirât kuna. xâirât kâřa bo, â·kiste˜ xâirât to imo xånâdon, i˜ totbřo, 'ṣṭić nâpâr emmiš. ou˜, âvâl. xâirât to âvâl âṣṭić nâpâr imo gâanta âmgi. 'ṣṭić čâu·ki u tena. 'ṣṭić čâu·ki pâćeř 'ṣṭić gâzi râxt vi tena. 'ṣṭić gâzi râxt vi teti imo ǰemmiš. imo ǰemmiš bo â·kisteň iâš přena. iâš přeti imo ŋe Xgoš kâřâisa. sâuǧåt. tuhfâ. imo to, pâčać kus mâc̣ia˜ přena. â·kiste imo ruqsât bummiš. And there was this, too. A man would tend that field of Imro's and make a feast. It was a big feast. There was a lot of expenditure, right? For the expenditure, if they wanted to bring livestock, they would get permission from us. I had the power [?] over the feast. He would ask, "Shall I do it or not?" "Do it," we would say. When we told him to do it, he would do the feast. When the feast was put on, eighteen of us lords, my agnates, would go. Yes, at first. At first they would take eighteen of us to the feast. He would set up eighteen chairs. On top of eighteen chairs he would put down eighteen meters of cloth. He would put down eighteen meters of cloth and we would sit down. When we had sat down, then he would give the meal. After the meal they would make [??]. [??]. [??]. He would give us fifteen kus of honey. Then we would take leave.
[RS] ina xâirât kula kâča_âsa. [RS] Who was the feast-giver?
[ZX] bigonâ. totbřo, i˜ totbřo. eṭa pâido bunta, nâi â? o˜ xâirât kunam kâřa bo. kša kti eǰâusâ přenam o˜ć. â·kisteň xâirât kâřa bo; imo âvâl xâirât to 'ṣṭić nâfâr imo gâana âska. [ZX] An innocent. An agnate, my agnate. Someone would be found, right? If he said he would put on a feast, I would give him permission to do it. Then when he put on the feast, right at first he would take eighteen of us to the feast.
[RS] suara âmgi kea xâirât kunta? [RS] But why would they put on a feast?
[ZX] âska gitasta xâirât kuna; sâip_â, biliuk ṣâřa âlol kuna sâip. biliuku mânšoa˜ sâip_â, eṭa mânša ṣu vos iâš přenta, uṣṭ vos iaš přenta. tâmåmi mânšoa˜ iâš přenta. âska iâš přeti ča˜, düvići gâṣ âlol kuna sâip, što âṣa âlol kuna; go âlol kuna. âska oal' xâirât kâřa bo. ea pći ptul ǰe, břu˜ć. imroa břu˜ć di âi nâ_âi â? ea pći ptul imro ptul; ea pći břu˜ć âskea přenam o˜ć. âskea, âmu źâňi, âmu ŋe âta kṣoana, âska. âmu ŋe âta kṣeati eṭa di pâido biti eṭa di pâido biti xâirât `di přeti `di přeti, âṣṭić nâfâr xâirât kâřa bo. 'ṣṭić nâfâr. 'ṣṭić nâpâr xâirat kâřa bo; 'ṣṭić bârâbâr bi bo; âmna, ptul ǰe âmnio˜ pta latri pâs imo to âćanta âmgi. pâs o˜ iunam. `di xâirât kulâ bo `di gâanta. ev di gâana dü di gâana. gâati gâati gâati čând sa to vik âṣṭić břu˜ć e 'ṣṭić ptul bâřa bo i˜ to ste; âmna 'ṣtić to pâňu ḍika bo pâs âćti suanti imo to ânna sâip. gita sta qånun_âsa sâip. [ZX] He would put on this kind of feast. He would slaughter a lot of livestock. He would feed a lot of people. Some people would give a feast for seven or eight days. They would give a feast for the entire population. He would give a feast and slaughter forty billy goats; he would slaughter four bulls; he would slaughter a cow. When he made that great feast, I would give him one field and some meadowland. Imro had meadows, too, right? He would get the yield for himself. He would get the yield for himself and then some others would be found and they would give feasts again and again, and when eighteen individuals had been feasted [made feasts ?] and the count reached eighteen, the fields and the things that were given them would come back to us again. I would consume them again. If he put on a feast again, he would take them again. He would take one or even two. He would keep taking them, and after some years if he took eighteen meadows and eighteen fields from me, when they reached eighteen, they would all come back to us. That's the kind of law there was, sir.
[RS] â·kiste xâirât kâřa bo kâa buna. xâirât kula mânša kâa nom oal' vo buna â? [RS] Then when he put on a feast, what would he become? Did a feast-giver get some big name?
[ZX] nom de oal' vo bo nâi â? ea, [ZX] He would have a big name, right?
[RS] mümoč bomrik_âsa â de. [RS] Was he like a mümoč?
[ZX] nâi nâi. âksa ea pći, ea ptul imro ptul. ea břu˜ć imro břu˜ć bâřo; bes_âsa, âskea. nom kâřo sâip. [ZX] No, no. He would take a field, Imro's field, and a meadow, Imro's meadow. That's enough; he made his name.
[RS] âskea kâa nom buna â·kiste. [RS] What name would he have, then.
[ZX] âske sta â·ki, mânša, nom, nâ vo_âsa âska. nom nâ vo_âsa. tua totbřo pâmüč ea mânša âro buti xâirât kařa bo; âska nom nâ vo_âsa. imro ptul gâala kunta. [ZX] The man wouldn't have a name. He wouldn't have a name. If a man becomes rich among his agnates and puts on a feast, he wouldn't have a name. They would say "taker of Imro's field."
[RS] šo viri to? [RS] In your language?
[ZX] m’âreš lâtri pčy’â. m’areš š’üte uni. š’e uni. bâs. xâlos. kutå viri i·a_âsa. š’e, imro ptul gu bo š’e kummiš. suara ptul de, ütny’ok kummiš; imro ptul bi bo š’e kummiš. š’e ütnyok. š’e ütnyok kâi månå_âsa; mer ütnyok. mera sta tul. ou˜ âskea sâip, š’e ütnyok kummiš imo. ou˜. gâana. i˜ sta imro de âi. Xiča bo; imro ptul. [ZX] M’âreš lâtri pčy’â. M’areš š’üte uni. š’e uni. Enough. Finished. That's the short of it. š’e, if he goes to Imro's field, we say š’e. But for a field, we say ütny’ok; if it's Imro's field, we say š’e. š’e ütnyok. What does š’e ütnyok mean? ‘Leader's’ ütnyok. The leader's field. Yes, for that we say š’e ütnyok. Yes. He takes it. Mine include Imro's. [xx]; Imro's field.
suara eṭa âmo âšta, deša˜ sta. deša˜ sta âmo âi. âmni deša˜ sta âmo di, ina qonun to âšta, âmni di. âmni deša˜ pânom âveti ṣu âveti xâirât to XXX. âmni di ea ptul gâanta. ea břu˜ć di gâanta. Furthermore, there are some houses, belonging to the villagers. There are village houses. These village houses are under this law, too. They are brought under the name of the villagers, seven are brought to the feast [xx?]. They take one field, too, and they take a meadow.
[RS] âmgi gita sta ptul kâa nom âi. [RS] What name do such fields have?
[ZX] âmgi di še. âmnio di še kunta. âmnio še tul kunta. š’e ütnyok. ütny’ok imo tul ŋe ütny’ok kummiš. üt-nyok. ou˜. bâs. âmna di gâanta sâip_â. [ZX] They're še. They call them še. They call them še fields. š’e ütnyok. ütny’ok, we say ütny’ok for ‘field.’ üt-nyok. Yes, enough. They take them.
suara, eṭa sâip_â, âmgio˜ to am’al kummiš nâi â? Further, some things we call am’al, right?
eṭa XXX âmo sâip_â. ina, d’ivok kummiš. de_âsa, âska di. d’ivok. âskea de; š’e vo_âsa sâip_â. âska de kuři vo kâča mânša; xâirât pta bo, âmna de gâanta. âmna di gâadi âmna di; Xbiiuntu. XXX iunta âmgi. fâqât i˜ sta sâip âṣṭić sât pulo [?] bi bo, pâs âćti i˜ to âćanta. suara de iunta. suara de hâmešâ pXXXu iunta sâip_â. suara i˜ stea, kâča 'ṣṭić XXX u ḍika bo, pâs âćti i˜ to âćanta sâip. âska suaroa˜ to râ·is imo_âsamiš. šo to gita bulo suara kulo eǰosâ imo přemmiš nâi â? Some [xx] houses -- there's this one we call D’ivok. He's a god, too. D’ivok. He has a š’e, too. If a man who has a dog gives a feast for him, he gets it.[?] They get it and consume it. They consume it. Only if there were my eighteen hundred pulo [?], would they come back to me. The others they consume. The others the [xx] always consume. But mine, if they reach eighteen [xx], come back to me. We are the directors of the others. We tell them what will happen and what to do, and give them permission, right?
[RS] šo kâča_âsaň. [RS] Who are you people?
[ZX] imo, kâz’amdara. [ZX] We're Kâzam's Boys.
[RS] šo viri to kâi_âsa. [RS] What's it in your language?
[ZX] kâz’amdara mi_âsa o. [ZX] It's just Kâz’amdara.
[RS] dâr’a šo viri_âsa â? [RS] Is dâr’a [‘Boy’] your language?
[ZX] kâz’am t’âdbâ. ou˜. totbřo nâ_âsa; imo viri to t’âdbâ_âsa sâip. pazg’am tâdbâ kunta imo ŋe. pazg’am mâno_âsa ke vari_âsa nâi â? pk’azam tâdbâ. [ZX] Kâz’am t’âdbâ. Yes. It's not totbřo [‘agnate’]; in our language it's t’âdbâ. They call us Pazg’am tâdbâ. Pazg’am's meaning is that, it's a word [?], right? Pk’azam tâdbâ.
[RS] ou˜, pâk’azam. ou˜. [RS] Yes, Pâk’azam. Yes.
[ZX] ou˜. [ZX] Yes.
[RS] šo viri to kâi_âsa. [RS] What is it in your language?.
[ZX] imo to pk’azam tâdbâ. [ZX] By us, Pk’azam tâdbâ.
[RS] pk’azam. šo viri_âsa â? [RS] Pk’azam. That's your language?
[ZX] kâz’am tâdbâ kunta â? kâz’am de nâ kunta. må·šura de i·a_âsa; pazg’am kunta, pazg’am. pazg’am tâdbâ. p’azgam imo sta râvâja; ina XXX vari pazg’am tâdbâ kunta. pazg’am tâdbâ. [ZX] Do they say Kâz’am tâdbâ? They don't just say Kâz’am. This is what it is well-known by: they say Pazg’am, Pazg’am. Pazg’am tâdbâ. In our customary language they say Pazg’am tâdbâ. Pazg’am tâdbâ.
âni što mün âmo vo što mânša âi. ea. p’eik tâdbâ_âsa. de kâi vo_âsa âska. de âska vo_âsa sâipâ, d’ivok. d’ivok. Here there are four men who have four mün houses. One is P’eik tâdbâ. What god does he have? The god he has is D’ivok. D’ivok
[RS] mâtâ kša. što totbřo âi, nâi â? âr totbřo ea mün ... [RS] Wait. There are four agnatic groups, right? Each group of agnates has one mün ...
[ZX] mün_âsa. mün to hâr, de vo âšta. de to sâip, ea but buna sâip. ou˜. gita sta âi. [ZX] There's a mün. Each mün has a god. Each god has one idol. They're like that.
[RS] šo sta de imro sta_âsa, nâi â? ou˜, vâre˜ sta di. vâre kâa totbřo âi. [RS] Your god is Imro, isn't it? řight, what about those of the others? What other agnatic groups are there?
[ZX] vâre. deša˜ sta. ps’âk tâdbâ. ps’âk. ps’âk tâdbâ. deša˜ sta bâ. [ZX] Others, the villagers': Ps’âk tâdbâ. Ps’âk. Ps’âk tâdbâ. They belonged to the village.
[RS] disaňi šo viri to kâi_âsa. [RS] How do you say Disaňi in your language?
[ZX] d’isni. [ZX] D’isni.
[RS] d’isni_âsa, nâi d’išni. [RS] Is it D’isni or D’išni?
[ZX] nâi, d’isni. ps’âk tâdbâ_âsa sâip. disn’i but âmŋio˜ to_âsa. disn’i amal. am’al. v’ârak. âmo. disn’i ambal. am’al. ˁisât to kunta nâi â? nâabo suanti mubârak kunta sâip_â. âskea âmŋio˜ sta deš XXX to, am’al kunta sâip. ou˜. [ZX] No, D’isni. It's the Ps’âk tâdbâ. The have Disn’i's idol. Disn’i amal. am’al. v’ârak. House. Disn’i ambal. am’al. They say it for prestige, right? Otherwise they all give felicitations. They call their house [?] am’al. Yes.
[RS] vâre kâa. [RS] What else?
[ZX] vâre âtkistâ, p’eči tâdbâ. p’eči tâdbâ. de âmŋio˜ sta_âsa; d’ivok. de sta, d’ivok sta but âmŋio˜ to_âsa sâip_â. d’ivok sta but âmŋio˜ to_âsa. div’ok kunta. [ZX] Further then, P’eči tâdbâ. P’eči tâdbâ. Their god is D’ivok. The god's, D’ivok's idol is with them. D’ivok's idol is with them. They say Div’ok.
[RS] div’ok_âsa nâi, d’ivok. [RS] Is it Div’ok or D’ivok?
[ZX] div’ok. ou˜, d’ivok. âska âska_âsa. [ZX] Div’ok. Yes, D’ivok. That's it.
ea di sâip_â; âa. âska; puẓ’ut totbřo_âsa sâib. puẓ’ut. âska di, Imro vo_âsa. imro sâip_â âske sta imro, imro to vâama imro_âsa sâip_â. oal' imro de nâ_âsa; Another is the Puẓ’ut lineage. Puẓ’ut. That has Imro, too. Their Imro is a lesser Imro. It's not the big Imro.
[RS] dü imro âi â? [RS] Are there two Imros?
[ZX] nâi. imro de ev_âsa. âska vâama imro je, imro nom, xudâi, âskea imro, âskea epšik oal' nom pta sta biti; âska oal' imro to vâama imro, puẓ’ut a sta vâama imro_âsa sâip. [ZX] No. Imro is one. That lesser Imro and -- Imro's name, God, that Imro, he has been given a somewhat bigger name. That Imro who is lesser than the big Imro belongs to Puẓ’ut's Boys.
[RS] šo viri to kâa nom_âsa. [RS] What's his name in your language?
[ẓX] imo viri to sâip_â, sta, p’aǰǧir m’âra. p’aǰǧir m’ârâ. imro ŋe m’ârâ kunta, imo mânša. [ZX] In our language he's P’aǰǧir M’ârâ. P’aǰǧir M’ârâ. Our people say M’ârâ for Imro.
[RS] mâr’â kunâsi nâi, m’ârâ. [RS] Would they say Mâr’â or M’ârâ?
[ZX] nâi, m’ârâ. Imro imo mânša imo viri to âni viri to m’ârâ kunta sâip. p’aǰǧir m’ârâ. p’aǰǧir m’ârâ kâi_âsa; ina, ea ǰoi to üpsina m’ârâ, suara oala_imro de XXX umumi ǰoi to bo nâi â? âska ea hisâ vo imro. ea hisâ vo m’ârâ. âskea p’aǰǧir m’ârâ kunta sâip. [ZX] No, M’ârâ. Our people in our language here call Imro M’ârâ. P’aǰǧir M’ârâ. What's P’aǰǧir M’ârâ? M’ârâ who has settled down in one place. But big Imro existed in general, right? The Imro who has one share[?]. M’ârâ who has one share. They call him P’aǰǧir M’ârâ.
[RS] â·kiste, mâtâ kša. ea de m’ârâ, ea div’ok, ea d’isni; disn’i_âsa â? nâi d’isni. [RS] So then, wait a minute. One is M’ârâ; one is Div’ok; one is D’isni -- is it Disn’i or D’isni?
[ZX] d’isni. [ZX] D’isni.
[RS] d’isni. ea de, paǰǧ’ir; [RS] D’isni. One is Paǰǧ’ir;
[ZX] p’eik. ea di puẓ’ut. ea di, mâtâ kša, o˜ vilâlom. pazg’am; imro bo. imro sta âmo bo â? mâr’â bo. m’ârâ. suara, div’ok; div’ok p’eiči; źâi bâ. div’ok. but, div’ok pânom but vo âšta âmgi. am’al vo âi nâi â? âska, ea totbřo bo â. suara, puẓ’ut; m’ârâ vo_âsa âska di. âska di puẓ’ut m’ârâ de, iâni, âska oal' imro to vâama m’ârâ_âsa sâip_â. âska di am’al vo_âsa. ea totbřo_âsa; pas’âk_âsa. pas’âk, disn’i vo_âsa. but disn’i pânom XXX, âska vo_âsa. but vo_âsa. am’al âske to di_âsa. gita sta mi âi o. [ZX] P’eik. One is Puẓ’ut. One is, wait a minute, I'll tell you. Imro belonged to Pazg’am. They had Imro's house, right? They had Mâr’â. M’ârâ. And Div’ok. Div’ok was in the P’eičis' place. Div’ok. They had the idol in Div’ok's name. They had an am’al, right? That was one group of agnates. Further, the Puẓ’ut have M’ârâ, too. That Puẓ’ut M’ârâ, like, is a lesser M’âra than the big Imro. He has an am’al, too. One group of agnates is Pas’âk. The Pas’âk have Disn’i. They have the idol in Disn’i's name. They have the idol. They have an am’al, too. That's the way they are.
[RS] što mi âi â? [RS] Are there just four?
[ZX] ou˜. što mi âi. ou˜. [ZX] Yes. There are just four. Yes.
[RS] â·ki niň de kâa gita sta mi_âsi â? [RS] Was it the same down the valley there?
[ZX] â·ki di gita sta âi o. pâṣki kâča imro ptul vo, de ptul vo bi bo; nom kummiš xâirât kummiš kâřa bo. âćti i˜ to âćanta sâip, imo to. imo eǰosâ přemmiš. imoa vâlleati gâanta â·ki. xâirât kâřa bo. vâlleati imo, âa, âṣṭić čâu·ki ü teti, 'ṣṭić gâźa râxt pâćeř vü tenta. ǰemmiš, imo. â·kistâň ǰeti buṭi iâňa bo; pâčać kus mâiti, mâc̣i přenta. imo âćammiš. âgâr xâirât epšik, lesta nâ kařa bo; šikoiât imo to âso bo. xâirât, lesta lå·iq xâirât nâ_âso. ḍagara xâirât_âso. xârča čok_âso, kâřa bo; nâ bo. kummiš imo. nâ buna. `di kuna, âska. kâřa bo sâ·i kti kâřa bo de, mânzur bo. nâi. eṭa mânša âćti lesta nâ bo kâřa bo; nâ buno kâřa bo di kuna. ou˜, [laugh] gita sta_âsa o. [ZX] It's like this there. In Pâṣki if someone has a field dedicated to Imro or some god, and he wishes to make a name by giving a feast, he comes to me, to us. We give him permission. They invite us and bring us there, if they're giving a feast. We are invited, and they set up eighteen chairs and put eighteen meters of cloth on top of them. We sit down. Then after we've sat and eaten, they give us fifteen bowls of honey. Then we come back. If the feast wasn't done quite well enough, if it turns out that we have complaints that the feast was unworthy or that it was a bad feast or that the provisions were lacking, we say that it didn't count. It doesn't count. He has to do it again. If he does it correctly, he is victorious. But if some people come and say that it wasn't good, then he does it again. Yes, [laugh] that's the way it was!
[RS] â·kiste strak de, lâ·ka nire kṣtebřom. âmgi de gita sta âmo vo bunta â? [RS] So then now, for instance, down in Kṣtebřom. Do they have the same kind of houses?
[ZX] ou˜. sua˜ to ne? mün âmo sua˜ to_âsa o. sua˜ to âšta. [ZX] Yes, they all have them, right? They all have the mün houses. They all have them.
[RS] âmgio˜ to ketta de âi. [RS] Which gods do they have?
[ZX] âmni nire de âmŋio˜ to målumât_âsala âmna, nire âmna nâi â? âmna nire břâkoma sta, ina, pařu˜źa sta. s’eič. so˜ vo_âsa. so˜. imro pütras âmŋio˜ to tâluqo vo_âsa sâip. so âni de iot kunta; mâgâr âmna biliuk iot kunta sâip. so imro peezas, pütras_âsa kunta. suara sül-m’eč kunta. s’ülmeč. ou˜. âska di, ǰukuř pânom âsa sâip_â. ǰukuř nom to_âsa âska. ǰuka˜ sta d’e_âsa nâi â? s’ülmeč kunta. [ZX] They must have the information themselves down there, right? The ones from the villages down there, from Pařu˜ź -- S’eič -- they have So˜. So˜. They recognize [?] him as Imro's son. So is remembered here, too; but they remember him a lot there. They say that So is Imro's son. Then there's one called Sül-m’eč. S’ülmeč. Yes. That one is in the name of women. She's in the name of women. She's the women's god, right? They call her S’ülmeč.
[RS] âska kâa kunâsi. [RS] What would that one do?
[ZX] âska di gita sta hol to, imo kâa i·sop to âi bo âmno˜ di gita sta âi. [ZX] In such a situation, whatever reckoning we had for them, they had the same, too.
â·kiste ni giti nire dive guš bo; uṣ’um kunta uṣ’um. ina uṣ’um âmŋio˜ sta `de_âsa. uṣ’um. âska uṣ’um a sta am’al bulo. kuṣ’uma sta sâip_â, but xånâ bulo; uṣ’uma sta, xâirât bulo; suara, uṣ’um to imro de, imro de hâr to˜ to_âsa nâi â? âmŋio˜ sta `de mâšur XXX uṣ’um_âsa. uṣ’um. Then if you go down to Dive, they call one Uṣ’um. Uṣ’um. This Uṣ’um is their god. Uṣ’um. There would be an am’al for Uṣ’um. There would be Kuṣ’um's idol-house; there would be Uṣ’um's feast. But compared to Uṣ’um, Imro -- Imro was in every place, right? Their most famous god was Uṣ’um. Uṣ’um.
[RS] âska fâ·kât â·ki üć’ü mi bunâsi â? [RS] Did they only have that one there in Üć’ü?
[ZX] ou˜. disn’i di vo âi; mâgâr sâip, imro di vo âi; mâgâr uṣ’um âmŋio˜ sta biliuk, oa, mutâbâr_âsa sâip, âmŋio˜ to. biliuk iot kunta. ou˜. uṣ’um. [ZX] Yes. They had Disn’i, too; but -- they had Imro, too, but Uṣ’um was their most holy one. They worshiped him a lot. Yes, Uṣ’um.
[RS] suara âni de nâ buna. [RS] But he wasn't here?
[ZX] âni uṣ’um de, źâňanta; âska `de_âsa kunta sâip; mâgâr egek xâirât to nâ_âsa. nâ_âšta. ou˜. tâluqå â·ki vo_âsa sâip. nire sâip kwṣtei [?] guš bo. imro; XXX imro â·ki_âsa. ǰoi nâšan â·ki_âsa nâi â? âmu sta ǰoi, pâto˜ â·ki_âsa sâip_â. oal' imro â·ki_âsa. âmna, but i, sa; pura bi bo če˜. kâča gâs gâala, kâča mâṣal' gâala kâča gâala sun ti giti â·ki giti hâč kunta sâip_â. vâsaŋařati â·ki sâip_â. pâčać gâṣ. mâṣala bunta â? âzar mâṣala bunta â? čok bunta â? skol bunta â? e to âćti âlol kunta sâip. â·ki oal' imro to enta nâi â? [ZX] They know Uṣ’um here; they say that he is a god. But he doesn't have much feasting. They're not into it. Yes. He has tâluqå down there. If you go down to Kwṣtei, Imro is there. The place where he resides is there, right? His own place is there. Big Imro is there. The idols -- when the year is finished, some people would bring billy goats, and some would bring rams and so on, and they would all go and make a pilgrimage there. They would gather together there, and whether there were fifteen billy goats or rams, or four hundred rams, or few or many, they would come to a place and sacrifice them. They would go there to Big Imro, right?
[RS] â·ki âska to˜ to dor kâča bâlla. [RS] Who might have been the keepers of that place there?
[ZX] âmna âske sta to˜ to sâip â·ki; pagâily’â mün kunta, pag’âilyâ. pag’âilyâ sâip, bådor âska_âsa sâip_â. ou˜. pagâily’â mün; bådor âska_âsa. kuiu oal' nom kařa bo; xâirât kula bi bo ča, eǰosâ `di imo to ânna âska. âska pagâily’â mün di âćti imo to eǰosâ vřâkâna. ou˜. pagâily’â mün imo to ânna sâip. imo eǰosâ přemmiš âske to. xâirât kša kti. â·kisteň giti xâirât kuna sâip. âmna kâi `de, `de sta but u, imro sta but u kâi âi bo; mün mânša nâ_âi â? mün mânša âćti imo to eǰosâ imo to vâ ânta [for âćanta?]. xâirât kummiš kařa bo. imoa âmŋio eǰosâ pta bo; â·kiste xâirât kunta. gita sta kudüm_âsa. âṣṭić bo˜ ü teti; âṣṭić gâźi râxt pâčeř vü teti; â·kistâ, imoa iâš iâňa bo če˜, âmna râxt imo to přenta, nâi â? sâwot âi âmgi. pâčać kus ânua, mâc̣i přenta imoa. ou˜. [ZX] They call the one at his place there the Pagâily’â mün, Pag’âilyâ. The Pag’âilyâ are his keepers [? bådor]. Yes. The Pagâily’â mün is his keeper. Wherever someone would make a big name for himself, when he would make a feast, he would still come to us for permission. Even the Pagâily’â mün would come to us for permission. Yes. The Pagâily’â mün would come to us. We would give permission to him and tell him to put on a feast. Then he would go and put on a feast. Whatever would be going on around the gods' idols, whatever there was around Imro's idol, the mün persons -- right? -- the mün persons would come to us for permission, if they wanted to put on a feast. If we gave them permission, then they would put on the feast. That's what would happen. They would set up eighteen chairs and put eighteen meters of cloth on them; then when we had eaten the meal, they would give us the cloth, right? They were sâwot [?]. They would give us fifteen bowls of ghee and honey. Yes.
[RS] suara lâ·kâ o˜ć disaňi ŋe xâirât kula bim bo. kunta â? disaňi ŋe. [RS] So, for instance, if I want to put on a feast for Disaňi -- do they do them for Disaňi?
[ZX] ou˜. [ZX] Yes.
[RS] â·kiste, disaňi pâćo kâča âi âmgi. [RS] Then, who are the keepers of Disaňi?
[ZX] ps’âk kunta âni. ps’âk. [ZX] They're called Ps’âk here. Ps’âk.
[RS] âmgi ps’âk tâdbâ gita sta âṣṭić bo˜ to âmgio˜ ǰoanâsi â? [RS] Would these Ps’âk tâdbâ be seating them in eighteen chairs like that?
[ZX] ou˜. [ZX] Yes.
[RS] o·i_âsi â? nâi, [RS] Was that it, or ...
[ZX] ou˜. o·i, i·a_âsi o. xâirât kula bi bo; imoa gâanta sâip_â. [ZX] Yes. That was exactly it. If they wanted to put on a feast, they would take us.
[RS] âmgi, ketta `de to xâirât kula bi bo; â·kiste giti âmgi, âmgi totbřoa˜ to giti, ǰoanâsi â? nâi â. [RS] For whichever god they would put on a feast, they would go to those agnates and seat them, right?
[ZX] totbřo imo sta âṣṭić nâpâr imo sta tuare˜ tuare˜. tuare˜ tuare˜, âaṭi âšta bo di pârmaň âšta bo di mâčkuř i·sop kti; tuare˜ tuare˜ i˜ sta tuare˜. âmŋioa gâanam o˜ć. âṣṭić nâpâr bârâbâr kti bâřa bo; âṣṭić bo˜ ü teti âṣṭić bo˜ to sâip âṣṭić gaźi râxt ü tenta. ǰemmiš â·ki. [ZX] I would take eighteen of our closest agnates, whether they were young men or children or among the adult males, my closest ones. When I got eighteen persons together and brought them, they would set up eighteen chairs and put eighteen meters of cloth on the eighteen chairs, and we would sit there.


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